DILIGENTLYE COLLECTED AND DRAWne by IHON WHITE who was sent thither speciallye and for the same purpose by the said SIR WALTER RALEGH the year abovesaid 1585. and also the year 1588.
now cutt in copper and first published by THEODORE de BRY att his owne chardges.
|I.||The carte of all the coast of Virginia.|
|II.||The arrivall of the Englishemen in Virginia.|
|III.||A Weroan or great Lorde of Virginia.|
|IIII.||One of the chieff Ladyes of Secota.|
|V.||One of the Religeous men in the towne of Secota.|
|VI.||A younge gentill woeman doughter of Secota.|
|VII.||A chieff Lorde of Roanoac.|
|VIII.||A chieff Ladye of Pomeiooc.|
|IX.||An aged manne in his winter garment.|
|X.||Their manner of careynge ther Childern and atyere of the chieffe Ladyes of the towne of Dasamonquepeuc.|
|XII.||Their manner of makinge their Boates.|
|XIII.||Their manner of fishynge in Virginia.|
|XIIII.||The browyllinge of their fishe over the flame.|
|XV.||Their seetheynge of their meate in earthen pottes.|
|XVI.||Their Sitting at meate.|
|XVII.||Their manner of prayinge with their Rattels abowt the fyer.|
|XVIII.||Their danses whych they use at their hyghe feastes.|
|XIX.||The towne of Pomeiooc.|
|XX.||The towne of Secota.|
|XXI.||Their Idol Kiwasa.|
|XXII.||The Tombe of their Werowans or chieff Lordes.|
|XXIII.||The marckes of sundrye of the chiefe mene of Virginia.|
ALTHOUGH (frendlye Reader) man by his disobedience, weare deprived of those good Gifts wher with he was indued in his creation, yet he was not berefte of wit to provyde for hym selfe, nor discretion to devise things necessarie for his use, except suche as appartayne to his soules healthe, as may be gathered by his savage nations, of whome this present worke intreateth. For although they have noe true knoledge of God nor of his holye worde and are destituted of all lerninge, Yet they passe us in many thinges, as in Sober feedinge and Dexteritye of witte, in makinge without any instrument of mettall thinges so neate and so fine, as a man would scarselye beleve the same, Unless the Englishemen Had made proofe Therof by their travailes into the contrye. Consideringe, Therfore that yt was a thinge worthie of admiration, I was verye willinge to offer unto you the true Pictures of those people wich by the helpe of Maister Richard Hakluyt of Oxford Minister of Gods Word, who first Incouraged me to publish the Worke, I creaved out of the verye original of Maister Ihon White an Englisch paynter who was sent into the contrye by the queenes Majestye, onlye to draw the description of the place, lyvely to describe the shapes of the Inhabitants their apparell, manners of Livinge, and fashions, att the speciall Charges of the worthy knighte, Sir WALTER RALEGH , who bestowed noe Small Sume of monnye in the serche and Discoverye of that countrye, From the yeere, 1584, to the ende of The yeare 1588. Morover this booke which intreateth of that parte of the new World which the Englishemen call by the name of Virginia I heer sett out in the first place, beinge therunto requested of my Frends, by Reason of the memorye of the fresh and late performance therof, albeyt I have in hand the Historye of Florida wich should bee first sett foorthe because yt was discovured by the Frencheman longe befor the discoverye of Virginia, yet I hope shortlye also to publish the same, A Victorye, doubtless so Rare, as I thinke the like hath not ben heard nor seene. I craeved both of them at London, and brought Them hither to Franckfurt, wher I and my sonnes haven taken ernest paynes in gravinge the pictures ther of in Copper, seeing yt is a matter of noe small importance. Touchinge the stile of both the Discourses, I have caused yt to bee Reduced into verye Good Frenche and Latin by the aide of verye worshipfull frend of myne. Finallye I hartlye Request thee, that yf any seeke to Contrefaict thes my bookx, (for in this dayes many are so malicious that they seeke to gayne by other men labours ) thow wouldest give noe credit unto suche conterfaited Drawghte. For dyvers secret marks lye hiddin in my pictures, which wil breede Confusion unless they bee well observed.
The sea coasts of Virginia arre full of Ilands, wher by the entrance into the mayne lãd is hard to finde. For although they bee separated with divers and sundrie large Division, which seeme to yeeld convenient entrance, yet to our great perill we proved that they wear shallowe, and full of dangerous flatts, and could never perce opp into the mayne land, untill wee made trialls in many places with or small pinness. At lengthe wee fownd an entrance uppon our mens diligent serche therof. Affter that wee had passed opp, and sayled ther in for a short space we discovered a mightye river fallinge downe in to the sownde over against those Ilands, which nevertheless wee could not saile opp any thinge far by Reason of the shallewness, the mouth ther of beinge annoyed with sands driven in with the tyde therfore saylinge further, wee came unto a Good bigg yland, the Inhabitants therof as soone as they saw us began to make a great and horrible crye, as people which never befoer had seene men apparelled like us, and camme a way makinge out crys like wild beasts or men out of their wyts. But beeng gentlye called backe, wee offred them of our wares, as glasses, knives, babies, and other trifles, which wee thougt they deligted in. Soe they stood still, and percevinge our Good will and courtesie came fawninge uppon us, and bade us welcome. Then they brougt us to their village in the iland called, Roanoac, and unto their Weroans or Prince, which entertained us with Reasonable curtesie, althoug they wear amased at the first sight of us. Suche was our arrivall into the parte of the world, which we call Virginia, the stature of bodye of wich people, theyr attire, and maneer of lyvinge, their feasts, and banketts, I will particullerlye declare unto yow.
THE Princes of Virginia are attyred in suche manner as is expressed in this figure. They weare the haire of their heades long and bynde opp the ende of the same in a knot under their eares. Yet they cutt the topp of their heades from the forehead to the nape of the necke in a manner of a cokscombe, stickinge a faier longe fether of some berd att the Begininge of the creste uppon their foreheads, and another short one on bothe seides about their eares. They hange at their eares ether thicke pearles, or somwhat els, as the clawe of some great birde, as cometh in to their fansye. Moreover They ether pownes, or paynt their forehead, cheeks, chynne, bodye, armes, and leggs, yet in another sorte then the inhabitants of Florida. They weare a chaine about their necks of pearles or beades of copper, wich they muche esteeme, and ther of wear they also braselets on their armes. Under their brests about their bellyes appeir certayne spotts, whear they use to lett them selves bloode, when they are sicke. They hange before them the skinne of some beaste verye feinelye dresset in suche sorte, that the tayle hangeth downe behynde. They carye a quiver made of small rushes holding their bowe readie bent in one hand, and an arrowe in the other, redie to defend themselves. In this manner they goe to warr, or to their solemne feasts and banquetts. They take muche pleasure in huntinge of deer wher of ther is great store in the contrye, for yt is fruitfull, pleasant, and full of Goodly woods. Yt hathe also store of rivers full of divers sorts of fishe. When they go to battel they paynt their bodyes in the most terrible manner that thei can devise.
The woemen of Secotam are of Reasonable good proportion. In their goinge they carrye their hands danglinge downe, and air dadil in a deer skinne verye excelletlye wel dressed, hanginge downe fro their navell unto the mydds of their thighes, which also covereth their hynder parts. The reste of their bodies are all bare. The forr parte of their haire is cutt shorte, the rest is not over Longe, thinne, and softe, and falling downe about their shoulders: They weare a Wreath about their heads. Their foreheads, cheeks, chynne, armes and leggs are pownced. About their necks they wear a chaine, ether pricked or paynted. They have small eyes, plaine and flatt noses, narrow foreheads, and broade mowths. For the most parte they hange at their eares chaynes of longe Pearles, and of some smootht bones. Yet their nayles are not longe, as the woemen of Florida. They are also delighted with walkinge in to the fields, and beside the rivers, to see the huntinge of deers and catchinge of fische.
THE Priests of the aforesaid Towne of Secota are well stricken in yeers, and as yt seemeth of more experience then the comon sorte. They weare their heare cutt like a creste, on the topps of their heades as other doe, but the rest are cutt shorte, savinge those which growe above their foreheads in manner of a perriwigge. They also have somwhat hanginge in their ears. They weare a shorte clocke made of fine hares skinnes quilted with the hayre outwarde. The rest of their bodie is naked. They are notable enchaunters, and for their pleasure they frequent the rivers, to kill with their bowes, and catche wilde ducks, swannes, and other fowles.
VIRGINS of good parentage are apparelled altogether like the woemen of Secota above mentionned, saving that they weare hanginge abowt their necks in steede of a chaine certaine thicke, and rownde pearles, with little beades of copper, or polished bones betweene them. They pounce their foreheads, cheeckes, armes and legs. Their haire is cutt with two ridges above their foreheads, the rest is trussed opp on a knott behinde, they have broade mowthes, reasonable fair black eyes: they lay their hands often uppon their Shoulders, and cover their brests in token of maydenlike modestye. The rest of their bodyes are naked, as in the picture is to bee seene. They deligt also in seeinge fishe taken in the rivers.
THE cheefe men of the yland and towne of Roanoac weare the haire of their crounes of theyr heades cutt like a cokes combe, as the others doe. The rest they wear longe as woemen and truss them opp in a knott in the nape of their necks. They hange pearles stringe uppon a threed att their eares, and weare bracelets on their armes of pearles, or small beades of copper or of smoothe bone called minsal, nether paintinge nor powcinge of them selves, but in token of authoritye, and honor, they wear a chaine of great pearles, or copper beades or smoothe bones abowt their necks, and a plate of copper hinge uppon a stringe, from the navel unto the midds of their thighes. They cover themselves before and behynde as the woemen doe with a deers skynne handsomley dressed, and fringed. More over they fold their armes together as they walke, or as they talke one with another in signe of wisdome. The yle of Roanoac is verye pleisant, and hath plaintie of fishe by reason of the Water that environeth the same.
ABOUT 20. milles from that Iland, neere the lake of Paquippe, ther is another towne called Pomeioock hard by the sea. The apparell of the cheefe ladyes of that towne differeth but litle from the attyre of those which lyve in Roanoac. For they weare their haire trussed opp in a knott, as the maiden doe which we spake of before, and have their skinnes pownced in the same manner, yet they wear a chaine of great pearles, or beades of copper, or smoothe bones 5. or 6. fold about their necks, bearinge one arme in the same, in the other hand they carye a gourde full of some kinde of pleasant liquor. They tye deers skinne doubled about them crochinge hygher about their breasts, which hange downe before almost to their knees, and are almost altogither naked behinde. Commonlye their yonge daugters of 7. or 8. yeares olde do wait upon them wearinge abowt them a girdle of skinne, which hangeth downe behinde, and is drawen under neath betwene their thighes, and bownde above their navel with mosse of trees betwene that and their skinnes to cover their privities withall. After they be once past 10. yeares of age, they wear deer skinnes as the older sorte do. They are greatlye Diligted with puppetts, and babes which wear brought oute of England.
THE aged men of Pommeioocke are covered with a large skinne which is tyed uppon their shoulders on one side and hangeth downe beneath their knees wearinge their other arme naked out of the skinne, that they maye bee at more libertie. Those skynnes are Dressed with the hair on, and lyned with other furred skinnes . The yonnge men suffer noe hairr at all to growe uppon their faces but assoone as they growe they put them away, but when they are come to yeeres they suffer them to growe although to say truthe they come opp very thinne. They also weare their haire bownde op behynde , and, have a creste on their heads like the others. The contrye abowt this plase is soe fruit full and good, that England is not to bee compared to yt.
IN the towne of Dasemonquepeuc distant from Roanoac 4. or 5. milles, the woemen are attired, and pownced, in suche sorte as the woemen of Roanoac are, yet they weare noe wreathes uppon their heads, nether have they their thighes painted with small pricks. They have a strange manner of bearing their children, and quite contrarie to ours. For our woemen carrie their children in their armes before their brests, but they taking their sonne by the right hand, bear him on their backs, holdinge the left thighe in their lefte arme after a strange, and unuseuall fashion, as in the picture is to bee seene.
THEY have comonlye conjurers or juglers which use strange gestures, and often contrarie to nature in their enchantments: For they be verye familiar with devils, of whome they enquier what their enemys doe, or other suche thinges. They shave all their heads savinge their creste which they weare as other doe, and fasten a small black birde above one of their ears as a badge of their office. They weare nothinge but a skinne which hangeth downe from their gyrdle, and covereth their privityes. They weare a bagg by their side as is expressed in the figure. The Inhabitants give great credit unto their speeche, which oftentymes they finde to bee true.
THe manner of makinge their boates in Virginia is verye wonderfull. For wheras they want Instruments of yron, or other like unto ours, yet they knowe howe to make them as handsomelye, to saile with whear they liste in their Rivers, and to fishe withall, as ours. First they choose some longe, and thicke tree, accordinge to the bignes of the boate which they would frame, and make a fyre on the grownd abowt the Roote therof, kindlinge the same by little, and little with drie mosse of trees, and chipps of woode that the flame should not mounte opp to highe, and burne to muche of the lengte of the tree. When yt is almost burnt thorough, and readye to fall they make a new fyre, which they suffer to burne untill the tree fall of yts owne accord. Then burninge of the topp, and bowghs of the tree in suche wyse that the bodie of the same may Retayne his just lengthe, they raise yt uppon potes laid over cross wise uppon forked posts, at suche a reasonable heighte as they may handsomlye worke uppon yt. Then take they of the barke with certayne shells: they reserve the innermost parte of the lennke, for the nethermost parte of the boate. On the other side they make a fyre accordinge to the lengthe of the bodye of the tree, savinge at bothe the endes. That which they thinke is sufficientlye burned they quenche and scrape away with shells, and makinge a new fyre they burne yt agayne, and soe they continne somtymes burninge and sometymes scrapinge, untill the boate have sufficient bothowmes. Thus God indueth thise savage people with sufficient reason to make thinges necessarie to serve their turnes.
THEY have likewise a notable way to catche fishe in their Rivers, for whear as they lacke both yron, and steele, they fasten unto their Reedes or longe Rodds, the hollowe tayle of a certaine fishe like to a sea crabb in steede of a poynte, wherwith by nighte or day they stricke fishes, and take them opp into their boates. They also know how to use the prickles, and pricks of other fishes. They also make weares, with settinge opp reedes or twigges in the water, which they soe plant one with another, that they growe still narrower, and narrower, as appeareth by this figure. Ther was never seene amonge us soe cunninge a way to take fish withall, wherof sondrie sortes as they fownde in their Rivers unlike unto ours, which are also of a verye good taste. Doubtless yt is a pleasant sighte to see the people, somtymes wadinge, and goinge somtymes sailinge in those Rivers, which are shallowe and not deepe, free from all care of heapinge opp Riches for their posterite, content with their state, and livinge frendlye together of those thinges which god of his bountye hath given unto them, yet without givinge hym any thankes according to his desarte.
So savage is this people, and deprived of the true knowledge of god. For they have none other then is mentionned before in this worke.
AFTER they have taken store of fishe, they gett them unto a place fitt to dress yt. Ther they sticke upp in the grownde 4. stakes in a square roome, and lay 4 potes uppon them, and others over thwart the same like unto an hurdle, of sufficient heigthe, and layinge their fishe uppon this hurdle, they make a fyre underneathe to broile the same, not after the manner of the people of Florida, which doe but schorte, and harden their meate in the smoke onlye to Reserve the same duringe all the winter. For this people reservinge nothinge for store, thei do broile, and spend away all att once and when they have further neede, they roste or seethe fresh, as wee shall see heraffter. And when as the hurdle can not holde all the fishes, they hange the Rest by the fyrres on sticks set upp in the grounde a gainst the fyre, and than they finish the rest of their cookerye. They take good heede that they bee not burntt. When the first are broyled they lay others on, that wear newlye broughte, continuinge the dressinge of their meate in this sorte, untill they thincke they have sufficient.
THEIR woemen know how to make earthen vessells with special Cunninge and that so large and fine, that our potters with lhoye wheles can make noe better: ant then Remove them from place to place as easelye as we can doe our brassen kettles. After they have set them uppon an heape of erthe to stay them from fallinge, they putt wood under which being kyndled one of them taketh great care that the fyre burne equallye Rounde abowt. They or their woemen fill the vessel with water, and then putt they in fruite, flesh, and fish, and lett all boyle together like a galliemaufrye, which the Spaniarde call, olla podrida. Then they putte yt out into disches, and sett before the companye, and then they make good cheere together. Yet are they moderate in their eatinge wherby they avoide sicknes. I would to god wee would followe their exemple. For wee should bee free from many kyndes of diseasyes which wee fall into by sumptwous and unseasonable banketts, continuallye devisinge new sawces, and provocation of gluttonnye to satisfie our unsatiable appetite.
THEIR manner of feeding is in this wise. They lay a matt made of bents one the grownde and sett their meate on the mids therof, and then sit downe Rownde, the men uppon one side, and the woemen on the other. Their meate is Mayz sodden, in suche sorte as I described yt in the former treatise of verye good taste, deers flesche, or of some other beaste, and fishe. They are verye sober in their eatinge, and drinkinge, and consequentlye verye longe lived because they doe not oppress nature.
WHEN they have escaped any great danger by sea or lande, or be returned from the warr in token of Joye they may a great fyer abowt which the men, and woemen sitt together, holdinge a certaine fruite in their hands like unto a rownde pompion or a gourde, which after they have taken out the fruits, and the seedes, then fill with small stons or certayne bigg kernells to make the more noise, and fasten that uppon a sticke, and singinge after their manner, they make merrie : as my selfe observed and noted downe at my beinge amonge them. For it is a strange custome, and worth the observation.
AT a Certayne tyme of the yere they make a great, and solemne feaste wherunto their neighbours of the townes adjoininge repayre from all parts, every man attyred in the most strange fashion they can devise havinge certayne marks on the backs to declare of what place they bee. The place where they meet is a broade playne, abowt the which are planted in the grownde certayne posts carved with heads like to the faces of Nonnes covered with theyr vayles. Then beeing sett in order they dance, singe, and use the strangest gestures that they can possiblye devise. Three of the fayrest Virgins, of the companie are in the mydds, which imbrassinge one another doe as yt wear turne abowt in their dancinge. All this is donne after the sunne is sett for avoydinge of heate. When they are weerye of dancinge . they goe oute of the circle, and come in untill their dances be ended, and they goe to make merrye as is expressed in the 16. figure.
THE townes of this contrie are in a maner like unto those which are in Florida, yet are they not soe stronge nor yet preserved with soe great care. They are compassed abowt with poles starcke faste in the grownd, but they are not verye stronge. The entrance is verye narrowe as may be seene by this picture, which is made accordinge to the forme of the towne of Pomeiooc. Ther are but few howses therin, save those which belonge to the kinge and his nobles. On the one side is their tempel separated from the other howses, and marked with the letter A. yt is builded rownde, and covered with skynne matts, and as yt wear compassed abowt with cortynes without windowes, and hath noe lighte but by the doore. On the other side is the kings lodginge marked with the letter B. Their dwellinges are builded with certaine potes fastened together, and covered with matts which they turne op as high as they thinke good, and soe receve in the lighte and other. Some are also covered with boughes of trees, as every man lusteth or liketh best. They keepe their feasts and make good cheer together in the midds of the towne as yt is described in the 17. Figure. When the towne standeth fare from the water they digg a great ponde noted with the letter C wherhence they fetche as muche water as they neede.
THEIR townes that are not inclosed with poles are commonlye fayrer then suche as are inclosed, as appereth in this figure which livelye expresseth the towne of Secotam. For the howses are Scattered heer and ther, and they have gardein expressed by the letter E. wherin groweth Tobacco which the inhabitants call Uppowoc. They have also groaves wherin thei take deer, and fields wherin they sowe their corne. In their cornefields they builde as yt weare a scaffolde wher on they sett a cottage like to a rownde chaire, signiffied by F. wherin they place one to watche, for there are suche nomber of fowles, and beasts, that unless they keepe the better watche, they would soone devoure all their corne. For which cause the watcheman maketh continual cryes and noyse. They sowe their corne with a certaine distance noted by H. other wise one stalke would choke the growthe of another and the corne would not come unto his rypenes G. For the leaves therof are large, like unto the leaves of great reedes. They have also a severall broade plotte C. whear they meete with their neighbours, to celebrate their cheefe solemne feastes as the 18. picture doth declare: and a place D. whear after they have ended their feaste they make merrie togither. Over against this place they have a rownd plott B. wher they assemble themselves to make their solemne prayers. Not far from which place ther is a lardge buildinge A. wherin are the tombes of their kings and princes, as will appere by the 22. figure likewise they have garden notted bey the letter I. wherin they use to sowe pompions. Also a place marked with K. wherin the make a fyre att their solemne feasts, and hard without the towne a river L. from whence they fetche their water. This people therfore voyde of all covetousnes lyve cherfullye and att their harts ease. Butt they solemnise their feasts in the night, and therfore they keepe verye great fyres to avoyde darkenes, and to testifie their Joye.
THE people of this cuntrie have an Idol, which they call KIWASA: yt is carved of woode in lengthe 4. foote whose heade is like the heades of the people of Florida, the face is of a flesh colour, the brest white, the rest is all blacke, the thighes are also spottet with whitte. He hath a chayne abowt his necke of white beades, betweene which are other Rownde beades of copper which they esteeme more then golde or silver. This Idol is placed in the temple of the towne of Secotam, as the keper of the kings dead corpses. Somtyme they have two of thes idoles in theyr churches, and somtine 3. but never above, which they place in a darke corner wher they shew terrible. Thes poore soules have none other knowledge of god although I thinke them verye Desirous to know the truthe. For when as wee kneeled downe on our knees to make our prayers unto god, they went abowt to imitate us, and when they saw we moved our lipps, they also dyd the like. Wherfore that is verye like that they might easelye be brougt to the knowledge of the gospel. God of his mercie grant them this grace.
THEY builde a Scaffolde 9. or 10. foote highe as is expressed in this figure under the tombs of their Weroans, or cheefe lordes which they cover with matts, and lai the dead corpses of their weroans theruppon in manner followinge. First the bowells are taken forthe. Then layinge downe the skinne, they cutt all the flesh cleane from the bones, which they drye in the sonne, and well dryed they inclose in Matts, and place at their feete. Then their bones ( remaininge still fastened together with the ligaments whole and uncorrupted) are covered agayne with leather, and their carcase fashioned as yf their flesh wear not taken away. They lapp eache corps in his owne skinne after the same is thus handled, and lay yt in his order by the corpses of the other cheef lordes. By the dead bodies they sett their Idol Kiwasa, wherof we spake in the former chapiter : For they are persuaded that the same doth kepe the dead bodyes of their cheefe lordes that nothinge may hurt them. Moreover under the foresaid scaffolde some one of their preists hath his lodginge, which Mumbleth his prayers nighte and day, and hath charge of the corpses. For his bedd he hath two deares skinnes spredd on the grownde, yf the wether bee cold hee maketh a fyre to warme by withall. Thes poore soules are thus instructed by nature to reverence their princes even after their death.
THE inhabitants of all the cuntrie for the most parte have marks rased on their backs, wherby yt may be knowen what Princes subjects they bee, or of what place they have their originall. For which cause we have set downe those marks in this figure, and have annexed the names of the places, that they might more easelye be discerned. Which industrie hath god indued them withal although they be verye simple, and rude. And to confesse a truthe, I cannot remember that ever I saw a better or quietter people then they.
The marks which I observed amonge them, are heere put downe in order folowinge.
The marke which is expressed by A. belongeth to Wingino, the cheefe lorde of Roanoac.
That which hath B. is the marke of Wingino his sisters husbande.
Those which be noted with the letters, of C. and D. belonge unto diverse chefe lordes in Secotam.
Those which have the letters E. F. G. are certaine cheefe men of Pomeiooc, and Aquascogoc.