First Hand Accounts

A Description of the Province of New Albion. And a Direction for Adventurers with small stock to get two for one, and good land freely: And for Gentlemen, and all Servants, Labourers and Artificers to live plentifully. And a former Description re-printed of the healthiest, pleasantest, and richest Plantation of New Albion in North Virginia, proved by thirteen witnesses. TOGETHER WITH A Letter from Master Robert Evelin, that lived there many years, shewing the particularities, and excellency thereof. With a briefe of the charge of victuall, and necessaries, to transport and buy stock for each Planter, or Labourer, there to get his Master 50 l. per Annum, or more in twelve trades, at 10 l. charges onely a man.
Beauchamp Plantagenet

Printer in the Year 1648.

This Epistle and Preface shews Catoes best rules for a Plantation.

To the right honourable and mighty Lord Edmund by Divine Providence Lord Proprietor, Earl Palatine, Governour and Captain Generall of the Province of New Albion, and to the Right Honourable the Lord Vicount Monson of Castlemain, the Lord Sherard Baron of Letrim: and to all other the Vicounts, Barons, Baronets, Knights, Gentlemen, Merchants, Adventurers, and Planters of the hopefull Company of New Albion, in all 44 undertakers and subscribers, bound by Indenture to bring and settle 3000 able trained men in our said severall Plantations, in the said Province.

Beauchamp Plantagenet of Belvil in New Albion Esquire, one of the Company, wisheth all health, happinesse, and heavenly blessings.

May it please your good Lordships and fellow Adventurers,

HAving been blasted with the whirlwind of this late, unnaturall and civill English war, seeing the Storm more likely to encrease then to calm, I recollected my former Journall and Manuall notes of my Travails by Land and Sea forty years since in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, and Belgia, and finding Omne solum forti patria, ut piscibus æquor; I perused all the books of any English Colonies, and by often conferences of the traders and resident planters, of the present state, condition, numbers, enemies, bad neighbours, air, health, government, fortification and safety, religion, quietnesse, profit, and returns, shipping for supplie and vent of the growing commodities; I conferred with my fellow patients, 7 Knights and Gentlemen, my kindred and neighbours, and reporting the true state of all our Colonies; and whiles thus musing I stood all a maze unresolved, the storm grew far more tempestuous with thundering and lightning, black and terrible gusts, and spouts, that made the rivers rise and my friends to hide: for the roaring Cannon beat down their wals and houses, the Musqueteers, Dragoons, and Pistold horsemen swept all Ca**** and their goods afore them; the Pikemen in their inclosures and retreats left them no beds, pots or pans; their silver plate was turned into earthern dishes: New names, and terms, like an unknown language, and like to strange tongue unheard of in all the Globe as far as our Antipodes, called Cavalleers, Engagers, Independents, Roundheads, and Malignants; like the Gothes, Huns, and Vandalls, and Alans, that invaded and conquered Italy, Spaine, and France; and like the Saxons, Jutes, and Angles that conquered Britanny. These having plundered, and put upon us new Laws and Ordinances, called Contribution, Excise, Quartering, and Sequestrations, my friends were now and rightly by Gods Providence made laight, did not troubled or incumbred with much stuffe to travel with, nor Farms, Tenements, or Copyholds, and for our sins our pride abated, our hearts humbled: our afflictions made us pray heartily, and call to God to direct us to infuse contrition and true sorrow and purpose of amendment to follow his calling. Wee found this storm and heavy judgement had likewise afflicted Scotland, Ireland, Man, Jarsey, and Garnsey Isles. Then perusing my old evidences, I found my Auncestor Sir Richard Plantagenet had Chawton, Blendworth, Clanfield, and Catrington in Hampshire. But in those Civil wars in Henry the sixth time, much like these or that of the Guelfs and Gibellines in Italy, all was lost. I resolved to be a Newter in this quarrell, not to kill English men and Christians, but with Christ to fly into Egypt, and like the Apostile Paul to fly out of one City into another, and get out of the fire: At last my seven Knights and Gentlemen imployed me the oldest and boldest Traveller to see all English Plantations, by warrant to buy land in the healthiest and best for us eight, and for a hundred servants, and twenty of our old tenants and families. But in my private instructions, I was on a full and deliberate council directed to follow old Catoes rules in seating of the Romane Colonies, begun to be seated to save charge of Garrisons in new Conquests. First, to seat in a healthy pure aire: else after all the hazzard, charge and building past, their people die, and their posterity extinguish, and their children inherit sicknes and weaknesse. Secondly, to sit down in a fresh navigable river for trade and supply, where there was stone neer to build, and not to build on wood subject to firing of enemies, negligence of servants, or treachery of slaves and apprentices; for this reason I on my view of Virginia, disliked Virginia, most of it being seated scatteringly in wooden clove board houses, where many by fire were undone, and by two massacres in an instant fired, without any Forts there, or retreats of safety in time of danger, and seated amongst Saltmarches and Creeks, where thrice worse then Essex, and Tenet, and Kent for agues and diseases, brackish water to drink and use; and a flat Country, and standing waters in woods bred a double corrupt air, so the elements corrupted no wonder as the old Virginians affirm, the sicknesse there the first thirty years to have killed 100000 men. And then generally five of six imported died, and now in June, July and August chiefly, one in nine die imported, absent a year and returning: though much land more now is cleared and victuall*** **tell mendeth the dict. Thirdly, Catoes and the third Romane rules was to seat in rich land so that the richnesse of the place and neernesse of husbandry may continue the Colony with plenty and safety: this also Virginia for the most part wanteth, they living in salts, and most of their lands after two crops is a light hot earth, which kils barley with the hot ground and Sun in May.

Thus instructed I viewed Barbadoes and Saint Christophers, Bermudoes, New England, and Virginia and Maryland; Saint Christophers I finde worne out, two parts full of French aliens subject to blast it, and winds blowing away Cotten, wanting victuals, and no store of land; Barbadoes have some rich men, having Sugar mils, Indico, Ginger, Suckets of Oranges and Lemmons, and bad Tobacco; but their usuall bread is of Cassada roots, whose juice is poyson, so the negligence of a servant or slave in the right making of it may cost the whole family a poysoning; the servants usuall food is some Pease, Potatoes, Roots, and those boyled make their drink called Mobby, and Plantana roots; some rich have Poultry, and Hogs, and Cows tied up to trees, for there are few Raunges and Inclosures. These two last yeares the plague as I am informed killed 10000 brave people, and there are many hundreds Rebell Negro slaves in the woods; here was no store of land for our 100 men and their families, here wants the English mans grasse, and so the English mans Beef, Mutton, Milk, Butter and Cheese, and they want rivers to turn their Sugar mills, so that New England sendeth Horses, and Virginia Oxen, to turn them at Excessive rates, and their keeping is there chargeable, and at Barbadoes they buy much Beef and Meal, and Pease, and Fish from New England, and other places, yet this Isle is full of gallant people, very civill and well governed, and now no fear of the Spaniard being so populous. Then I touched at Bermudoes, an Isle twenty miles long, and ten miles over; and in some places more guarded with Rocks and Isles, difficult in accesse, full of Figs, Oranges, Lemmons, Pomcitrons, Potatoes, and Plantans, Mays wheat for bread, excellent Fish, Tobacco and Pease; healthy too and quiet in government; But this Isle being but a pretty prison, was not for my Companies use. Thence I sailed to New England, where I found three months snow, hard winter, but lean land, in generall all along the sea coast well peopled Towns, the people very thrifty, industrious, and temperate; their fish carried to Bilbao, and Saint Sebastans, their Pipestaves to the Isles and Spain, and the corn of the floated river of Connectacut is transported, and the Beaver trade is their best subsistence. Still hoping for a richer and more temperate soile, I went to Virginia, passing 310 miles along the shoars and Isles of New Albion, by Manhatas Isle, by Long Isle, Cape May, and the two Capes of Delaware Bay, by the lesser and southernmost, being by our Sea-mens observations just in 38 degrees, and 40 minutes, and so to Congotto, and Fetz Iles in Maryland to Virginia; to Newports News, where receiving kind entertainment at Captain Matthews, at Master Fantleroys, and free quarter in all places, finding the Indian war ended, first by the valour, couragge, and hot charge of Captain Marshall, and valiant Stilwel, and finished by the personall and resolute March and Victory of Sir William Berkley Governour, there taking the old King Ope Chankino prisoner, I wandered all over, finding no place for the reasons aforesaid fit for our Companies: I went to Chicacoen, the North part of Virginia on Pawtomeck river, avoiding it and Maryland, which I found healthier and better then Virginia, for then it was in war both with the Sasquehannocks, and all the Eastern Bay Indians, and a Civill war between some revolters, protestants, assisted by 50 plundered Virginians, by whom M. Leonard Calvert Governour under his brother the Lord Baltamore, was taken prisoner and expelled: and the Isle of Kent taken from him also by Captain Clayborn of Virginia; yet I viewed Kent Isles, too wet, and plashy, having bad water, but there and at Chicacoen, and at Accomack in Virginia, and chiefly in New England, they related of the excellent temper, and pure aire, fertility of soile, of hils that sheltered off the North-west windes, and blasts, vallies of grapes, rich mines, and millions of Elkes, Stags, Deer, Turkeys, Fowl, Fish, Cotten, rare fruits, Timber, and fair plains, and clear fields, which other Plantations want, this excelling all others: and finding it lay just midway betwen Virginia, too hot and aguish in the blasted plains on one side, and the cold New England on the other, and in the same situation of Naples, the Garden of Europe, after one hunting voiage and *** 60 miles on one side of Albion, and 310 miles on the other side, and Long Isle finding the countries better and pleasanter then related, I made my addresses to the Lord Governour of Albion, and having obtained under the Province Seal my grant of my Manor of Belvill containing 10000 acres, on a navigable river, having in it and neer, Alablaster, Terras for plaister of Paris, Pudding and Slatstone, store of Timber, clear Fields, Meads and Woods, and no Indians neer, and Vines, I resolved to return to Holland, and to transport my friends, where most happily the second time meeting his Lordship, and perusing by his noble favour, all his Lordships Cards, and Seamens draughts, 17 journall books of discoveries, voiages, huntings, tradings, and severall depositions under seal of the great Bever, and fur trade, rich mines, and many secrets and rarities. In fourteen days having with the two former books printed of Albion 1637, and 1642. made a full abstract and collection, agreing with my own view and in the Depositions, and M. Evelins, and other the voiagers of Virginia and New England, I thought it most necessary for the good of all the Company, and many Voluntiers in Holland, distressed in England, and noble Knights, Gentlemen, that with a little stock may gain fair and rich possessions, and live in peace and quiet, to print and publish this my labor under all your Lordships Protections, most humbly craving your Lordships gentle acceptance.

And because it conduceth much for a General and a Leader to be known to his Commanders and Soldiers, his abilities and vertues, and excellent parts, drawing more men of honour and valour to follow him; it contending many men of honour and dignity to be led and commanded by a better and more honourable, and more sufficient then themselves, and not their inferiour: the meaner and poorer sort expecting all encouragement, justice, and protection; and all the Company, the Adventurers, and strangers to us all, may more freely and chearfully goe on, and set out their men, and expect the more and better returns and contentment, under his government, in whom Pietie, Religion, Honor, Justice, Learning, Valor, Judgment, Temperance, and Policie shineth; hope without offence or imputation of flattery, to affirm his virtues more then the gems of the Coronet of this our Earl Palatine, doe adorn his noble part.

Since to me conscientia mea mille testes, I have had the honour to be admitted as his familiar, have marched, lodged, and cabbined together, among the Indians and in Holland, have seen so many of his Manuscript Books, and most excellent Rules and Observations of Law, Justice, Policy, I found his conversation as sweet and winning, as grave and sober, adorned with much Learning, enriched with six Languages, most grounded and experienced in formal matters of State policy, and government, trade and sea voiages by 4 years travell in Germany, France, Italy, and Belgium, by 5 years living an Officer in Ireland, and this last 7 years in America, his studie and suits at home and abroad enabling his impartiall and infallible judgement of Judicature, and certainly his perfect knowledge of his 23 Indian Kings, under the command of this our Lord Royall, as of his good and bad neighbours, their power, wealth and weaknesse, English Aliens and Indians appears by his notes and books where none of their treacheries, plots, conspiracies, haltings and villanies, ther Antagonists, their numbers and abilities, the advantage of our arms and fights, and stratagems are as Greek phalanges, and they as Romane Maniples and enemies to side with; and how to quiet and regain, kill, or surprise them is not expressed. What Port, Bay and soundings, Creek, river, road, quarries of stone, slat, Iron mines, Gum-Dragoon, Lead, Gold, and Silver, Alablaster, Terras, Bolarmack, red soap earth, Terralemnia, Diers ware, Hearbs and Plants, and their use, Ocar, Rudle, Cinnaber for quicksilver and Vermillion, is not in particular, Cards by compasse, and scale in books, with all trials and witnesses recorded.

What land and sea profit, fishing, place for salt, Potas, Dies, Fruits, Hearbs and Plants clear Fields, great Plains, fine and thick Grasse, Marshes, necks of land, rich black, moulded countries for Tobacco, Flaxe, Rice, choice Trees, and Timber for Shipping, and Pipestaves, Masts, Yards, Pitch, Tar, sheltred places for Grapes and Fruits; Cotten in Cotten river, invincible places by nature, other by a little charge and fort to be made impregnable, is not in this huge and waste Province, being 1000 mile compasse delineated; and what Law or Policy, and summary Justice Courts of Law, Equity, Appeals, Awards, or references, sit to compose differences, reconcile debates, to unite hearts, to settle the factious and seditious in any other English Colonies or Countries, and fit for our Justice, is not explained.

Therefore my good Lords and Adventurers, since I speak of knowledge or view, and certain reports of wise and knowing men, I shall joy and congratulate with you all, in so able, sufficient, and honourable a Governour, happily to rule, to defend, and doe us justice; a tried and seasoned man, and excellent Pilot in all this Land and Seas, not afeared in person as a true Captain Generall by Land and Sea, to leade and settle us by Boat, Horse or Foot, as able and willing as any of the meanest; and therefore I think at first as most materiall to expresse the Law, Statutes, and Judgments, and Acts of Parliament, of Counts, and Count Palatines, and County Palatines, and of our Province and County Palantine, Liberties, and the ancient family 1200 years from the Saxons in England, of our Earl Palatine, his pedegree and alliance.

And since according as other Palatines, as he of Chester and Duresme, made their Barons and Knights, as therein many are yet living, you my Lord have begun to honour first your own children, I tender my best respects unto your own sonne and heir apparant Francis Lord Ployden, Baron of Mount Royall, and Governour, and to Thomas, Lord Ployden, Baron of Roymont, High Admirall: and to the Lady Winefrid Baronesse of Uvedale, the pattern of mildnesse and modesty; and to the Lady Barbara, Baronesse of Ritchneck, the mirrour of wit and beauty, and to the Lady Katherine, Baronesse of Prince***t, that pretty babe of grace, whose fair hands I kisse, hoping on your Lordships invitation C. C. T. and your two Baronets L. and M. to get them as they promised to goe with us. I hope to get your Knights and 200 Planters on this side ready. And thus with tender of my service to your Lordships, and all the Company, I rest

Your humblest servant,


Middleboro this 5 of Decemb. 1648

THE CONTENTS OF THE several Chapters

Chap. 1. Of Counts or Earls created, and County Palatines, and of our Province and County Palatine, Liberties, and the ancient Family 1200 years of our Earle Palatine from the Saxons in England, his pedegree and alliance.

Ch. 2. His Majesty, and his Auncestors just title, and actuall possession of these Countries, of some Aliens and Pirats in landing and disinheriting the English Crown, and of bad English and Fugitives to them adhering; the just cause and excuse to expel them.

Ch. 3. The Description of Master Robert Evelin and 13 witnesses, printed 7 years since, and now re-printed.

Ch. 4. The more large and exact Description and Declaration of many things these last seven years, the bounds of all to it adjoyning of Virginia, Maryland, New England; and Answer to Objections of bounds. The number of the present Inhabitants, and their Cattell in this Province, 1000 miles compasse; the number of Indians.

Ch. 5. What Cargason is necessary to transport for the Lord of a Manor, or to trade or truck with the Indians.

Ch. 6. Our present staple commodities, how oft a man transported and stockt to make of his 100 acres 50 or 70 per annum.


FOr the first creation of Earls in the Saxons time, and since by the Norman Kings in England, I refer you to that learned Antiquary Master Selden, his Book who writeth at large in his Book of Titles and Honours, as well of this as of forain Nations. But there you shall finde Records cited, and Earls made both by Privy Signet and Privy Seal, without the Great Seal. And they were not then meerly titulary, and nominall, without Interest, Power and Judicature, as now they are commonly all, except the Earle of Arundell, who still is a locall feodall Earl, by possession of the Castle, and of some Rapes or Liberties; for the Lord Lumley, not long since for some yeares being possessed thereof, was for such time Earle of Arundell, and that Earledome is confirmed, and so adjudged with his honour and precedency, by the House of Peers entred both in the Parliament, and Court of Honour Rols: and the Royall Grant was, Do tibi Comitatum & tertiam partem proficuorum, unde Comes est. And he made the Sheriffe, or his Vicount, or Deputy: And the County Court was his, and it was an honour and office, both with the County and assignable, the assignee enjoying the County, honour and office, as in Master Seldens Booke is cited in their Patents, and was not so many large words for his Title and Peerage as is now used.

But in the Reports 9 Jacobi of Sir John Davis in the case of the County Palatine, and in the Fourth Part of the Institutes of Sir Edward Coke, of jurisdiction of Courts, of the three County Palatines, yet in England, you may see Acts of Parliament, Judgements and full matter, shewing, That there were Comites Palatini of the first and higher ranke,1 which had in their Territories absolute command in Martiall, civill and criminal matters, with all Royalties and Regalities which the second order of titulary or nominall Earls had not, both in the Saxons and Normans time, long before the title of Duke, Marquesse, or Vicount were there granted. Secondly, Comes Palatinus was Comes Palatii, being a chief Councell and Companion to the Emperour or King, Comes Curarum Par extans Curis, solo diademate dispar.2 That in Chester, Durham, Lancaster and Pembroke, were made Earl Palatines, and County Palatines: and in Ireland in Lemster, Earl Strongbow, Sir Hugh de Lacy in Meth, to Sir Hugh de Lacy the younger in Ulster. That William Marshall marrying Earl Strongbows daughter, had by her five daughters: So as the Province of Lemster descending to them, it was divided into five Counties, to each of them one County Palatine. That Bracton the ancientest of Lawyers, averres Earl Palatine have regall power in all things saving Liegance to the King;3 Hugh Lupus by the Conquerour was made Earl Palatine of the County of Chester, as free to the sword, as the King to the Crown, and the Palatine of Chester made Barons, the Baron of Haulton, the Baron of Malbanck, the Baron of Malpas, the Baron of Kinderton, and in Lancaster, the Baron of Walton in Durham, the Baron of Hilton, and in Meth, Magnates and Barons; Baron de Streene, Baron de Naven, Baron de Baltrim, Baron de la Narron, Baron de Rheban in Kildare; the Baron Idrone in Caterlogh, the Baron of BurnChurch in Kilkenny, Baron of Nevill in Wexford, Baron of Loughmo in Tiperary, Baron Misset, and Baron Savage in Ulster. That these Earles Palatines had Parliaments, made tenures in Capite, and grand Serjancy,4 and the tenants sued out Licence of Alienations, and all Writs and Pleas, Officers, Chancelours, Judges, and that none of the Kings Officers could enter there, or that the Kings Writs, neither at Law or Chancery, did lie or run there, and that the County Palatine was thereby absolutely severed from the Crowne.5 That the County Palatine of Lancaster was created by that of Chester: and to Chester was annexed his conquered small County of Flint in Wales,6 and made besides the four above, foure other Barons: Vernon of Saybrook, Hammond de Massi Baron of Durham, and the Barons of Hawardin and Stockport, and in other Antiquities, Cornwall Baron of Burford in Shropshire.

That any Manors or Lands lying out of the County Palatine if held thereof, and the pleas of the inhabitants there arising shall bee tried within the County Palatine.

Thomas and Hugh Count Palatines both, and both Bishops pleaded and returned to the Kings Writs: I am a Lord Royall here, the Kings Writs doe not run here.7

The eldest sisters son by descent after her mother was Earl Palatine of Pembroke; And the Law, Reports, and Abridgements, shew they made Knights, and as Knights were to be impleaded; Divers statutes shew Durham and the Earl Palatines, Mints, Durham pence yet extant. The Earl Palatines had in the Counties Jura Regalia, as the King had in Palace, &c.8

In the Lord Lovels Case, the name or title of a Baron is no name of Dignity or addition,9 8 H. 6. 10. but Earl is parcell of his name, and of the substance of his name, and if it be left out of the Writ, the Writ shall abate, 39 E. 3. 35. the case of Gilbert Umfrevill Earl of Angus; and 14 E. 3. Brief 278. the case of Hugh de Audley Earle of Gloucestor; yet note Master Burlacy, for not calling the Lord Mohun Lord, but Mohun, was committed to prison; and note in a Star-chamber Brief the Lord Verulam, his widow marrying Sir John Underhill, was called and charged as my Lady Underhill, the late wife of Vicount Verulam, and not being called Vicountesse, the Bill was cast out, and a Fine for dishonour imposed.

Now there be four other Lord Proprietors that have Palatine jurisdiction granted, and Provinces in the West-India Isles, Florida and Maryland, and as free as the Bishop of Durham had, but none have a speciall creation of an Earle Palatine, but ours of New Albion: nor have they the Lords with such Additions, Titles, Dignities, and Priviledges, as either Durham or any other had, nor any speciall grant to coin money; in that of Maryland speciall Resort or Soveraign Dominion, which is a Court of Appeal, as in the case of King E. the third, and his son E. in Aquitany, with free fishing, and wood for houses, and to set up Fishing stages, is reserved; else all the Lord Proprietors have all the like Royalties and Regalities, and all these 11 H. 6. in a long Roll particularly expressed, are confirmed by Parliament to the Bishop of Durham, and so thereby to all the Lord Proprietors.10 And all of them have a speciall clause to give to the well deserving inhabitants in those Provinces, Titles, Honour and Dignities, so as they be not the same used in England. Now though some question is made whether the four Lord Proprietors can make Barons or any Knights in their Provinces, because such Honours and Titles of Barons and Knights, are used here; but there is no question or doubt in the Province of New Albion, our Lord being an Earle Palatine 16 years standing, as free as Chester and Pembroke, or Lacy, or Strongbow in Ireland, by that second power according to the Judged cases in Law and in Parliament, may make Provinciall, locall and fewdall Barons, as the 19 above named, and make Knight Batchelours, though here used, and to have precedency, as others have had heretofore, though his intended order of Knights of the Coversion of Albion is more proper. And for our Earle Palatines Honour and Peerage in Ireland, and to make his proxy in his absence in that House of Peers there, with all such Honor and Titles, of Precedency to him, his Countesse, and children in all places, as an Irish Earl, the special Decree and Clauses in the Charter doth fully warrant it. All the Civilians, Pleaders in the Court of Honour, and two Serjeants of the coife at Law, nine in number, have certified it, and enrolled on record, and is exemplified under the seal; the Barones of Nova Scotia being President in the like case. And note both the King of France, and this our King, have made Barons and Knights, Hollanders, that have precedency there before other the subjects there.

But to answer an Objection of some not truly informed and mistaken, conceiving that our Earle Palatine might in his Countrey onely and no where else, have his Honour, Title and Precedency. I answer, that our Soveraign Lord King Charles, as Emperour of England, under his Privy Signet, signed with his Royall hand, so granted and created him, which alone had been sufficient, as others have been made, in Master Seldens Book, Records and Presidents mentioned; but being farther with speciall Clauses and Decree, and speciall Creation, so made and particularly granted, that both by Tenure and Dependency, and that this Province shall be of the Liegance of Ireland, and all there born to be free Denizens thereof, and under his Majesties Great Seal, there is no doubt or question thereof; For he is no Alien Earl made by an Alien King, as Copply by the French King, Duke Dudley, and Count Arundell by the Emperour, but by our own King the fountain of Honour; For an Earl by his Charter carrieth his Honour with him in all places, and that is his true name as above is adjudged, and is not to be sued or sue, is adjudged, without it; and so the more learned Civilians and Serjeants have certified: and Nova Scotia is so annexed to Scotland, Adam de Valentia, and Marshall, Earle Palatines of Pembroke by Conquest in the kingdome or Principality of Wales, then out of England was a Peer to the English Parliament, and so the three Irish Conquerors Palatines recited; and how absurd a conceit it is that our Earl Palatine of Albion, and he of Pembroke in Wales, and the rest having all Regalities, and Powers, Lordship, Honour and Titles, and power to give Honours and make Barons coming out of their Countries into England, should here bee un-Lorded and debased unto Esquires without Lordship, Honour or Precedency. And note all these, and Earl Fitz Allen in his locall Earldome of Arundell by Writ being called to Parliament, is not there by an Earl; for to be called by Writ, is onely to be a Lord or Baron, and so the Earle of Arundells Title and Precedency was adjudged him after long debate by Parliament. To conclude the Earl Palatines of Chester and Pembroke, and Montgomery or de Belesmo in Shropshire, were the greatest Princes of England; and by their Conquests, and so in Ireland by their Hazard and Conquests that kingdome and Wales is gotton to this Crown: And so the now Lord five Proprietors that now conquer on Indians, and convert Pagons, and civilize them, and bring them to the obedience of our Soveraign, and at their own charges have made an entrance and sure way with the other Colonies of America to make our Soveraign an Emperour of America, having now neer two hundred thousand to defend his Empire; and therefore deserve all Honour and Encouragement; amongst which our Earl Palatine having adventured his person seven years, with so much hazard and charges, is chiefly to be advanced and honoured according to his worth.

Now for the pedegree and ancient Family of our Earl Palatine of 200 years descent, being in England and borders of Wales: I finde onely a letter in the name changed, in each Age, and Conquest or change of Nation; for in Henry of Huntingdon, and William of Malmsbury, his Chronicles of all the Saxon Princes, that have arrived, and seated, and conquered the Britains; this familiy descending of a daughter, came with those Princes into Britany; and I find that in lower Saxony neer Hamboro, and Holstein a member of the Empire, and in all Maps there is still in that harsh language Ployen, a wall'd City by a lake, and Plowen a walled Castle of Count Plowen, a Count of the sacred Empire, in Grimstons and other Histories mentioned; Now the Welch make and turn the vowel u into i or y, as from Brutus to Britons, so Plowden to Ployden, as all Maps write it. In Deeds, and the Bishop of Herefords Records I find Anno Domini 904. an Exchange pro decem manlis vocat Ploydanes place super quas Episcopus adificaturus est Castrum; called Bishops Castle, in which Town the Ploydens have much lands and tenements, having Ployden Manor, Ployden Hall, Longvill Castle, and thirteen Townes about it to this day, and at the coming in of H. the seventh were Commanders of that country, and Constables, or Chastellains of that Fort of Bishops Castle; now Ploydan and Ployden is all one, Forest of Danes for Dene, the Norman pronuntiation, which name of Ployden signifieth kill Dane, or wound Dane: and Pleyden by Ry in Sussex was of this house, and signifieth in French hurt Dane, and this Pleyden sent his sons and conquered in Normandy, where are five families yet: and the heir of Pleyden wanting issue, made it an Hospitall, now held by the Earle of Thanet, Lord Toston; So Plowen, Ployen, Playdane, Ployden, Plowden and Pleyden is all one, for the change in time, and severall Nations pronunciation, Saxons, Danes, English, Welch and Normans. And note, to this day an Esquire in France of 300 yeares standing of Coat Armor shall take place and precedency of any Earle, Vicount or Baron, which is not so ancient of Coat Armor, they not allowing the King by new creations to bar their inheritance and precedency. And for their greatnesse and pedegree, I finde Ployden married the daughter of John de Monte Gomerico, (now called Mount Gomery) Earl of Salopshire, in William the Conquerours reign, and in Edward the thirds time married the daughter of that great and rich Knight Burley Conquerour in France; Humphrey Poyden in H. the sevenths time married the daughter and heir Stury of Stury Hall, daughter of Corbet, of Morton Corbet, by whom the Lacons, Laytons, ***omlees, Purcelswollascot, of Wollascot, and the two Baronets Lee and Corbet Knights for the County of Salop to this Parliament, are of his kindred. And of the daughters of John Ployden, Lord Blany of Ireland, and of the other daughter married to Hardwick, grandmother to that great ***in of Clause Castle; the third daughter maried to Walcot of Walcot Close *** Ployden, yet men of great possessions, the Countesse of Bristoll being a Walcot, and so her sons, the Lord Digby and Sir Lewis Dives, and Vicountesse Chichester, or Belfast, and the other Ladies her daughters are descended, and are his kindred. Our Earl Palatines mother being sister of Sir Richard Fermor of Somerton, and cousen of Sir George and Sir Hatton Fermor, descended of the Knightlies, and so the Lord Vicount Say and Seal, the Countesse of Thomond a Fermor, and her children, and Vicount Wenman marying Sir Hatton Fermors children: the Baronesse of Abergenny, and her sister maried to Baronet Gage are his Neeces; his mother the Lady Penelope, daughter to the Lord Darcy, Vicount Colchester, Earl Rivers; but his branches for three last descents are so many, and at least fifty Baronets, Knights Equires, of 10001. per annum at least, and their numerous issue; but for heir males of the name his first is Ployden of Wansteed, Ployden of Shippla** Ployden of Askon, Ployden of Ployden, and Ployden of Lee, and Doctor Ployden late of Lambeth. And for his now wife Countesse Palatine, daughter and heir to two worthy families, Neece of Sir George and Sir Hamb. Paulet deceased, in that pedegree 300 from the Marquesse of Winchester Lord high Treasurer of England are allied. All which I have more fully published, that all of his kindred may, any ways poor or oppressed, the sooner be preferred, advanced and transplanted to this most rich and pleasant Province, and to great possessions and honours there, as great Strongbow did 1200 of his to Wexford and Lemster in Ireland.


NOw for the full and ample satisfaction of the Reader of his Majesties full title, and power to grant, enjoy, and possesse these countries, as well against Aliens as Indians which this forty years hath not been by print declared, we may read at large Master Hacluits Voyages and Discoveries, Master Purchas and Captain Smiths: for when the Spaniard and Portugall discovered and possest 140 years since the East-Indies, Brasill, the South part of America, the Charibees and Antell Isles, and seated Saint John de porto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Cuba, and the Fort and Port of Havanah, against the Gulf and Current, Batuana Isles, and point of Florida; then that most powerfull and richest King of Europe, King Henry the seventh of England sent out an English man born in Bristoll called Cabot, granted under his Great Seal to him all places and countries by him to be discovered and possest; who then beginning at Cape Florida discovered, entred on, took possession, set up crosses, and procured atturnment and acknowledgement of the Indian Kings to his then Majesty, as Head, Lord and Emperour of the Southwest America, all along that coast both in Florida from 20 degrees to 35, where old Virginia in 35 and 30 minutes 65 years since was seated by 5 severall Colonies about Croatan Cape, Haloraske, and Rawleys Isle, by Sir Walter Rawley, who had from Queen Elizabeth that place, and two hundred leagues from it in all places adjoyning; Sir Richard Greenfield, Sir Ralph Lane, and Master White his partners seating and fortifying there: the said Cabot, farther taking possession in 37 of that part called Virginia and Chisapeack Bay being now his Majesties Demesne Colony of Virginia, and of the next great Bay in or neer 39, called now by the Dutch Cape Henlopen, the south river, and by us Cape James and Delaware Bay of the Baron of Delawares name, being then Governour of Virginia, who by Sir Thomas Dale and Sir Samuel Argoll, 40 yeares since took possession and atturnment of the Indian Kings, and 60 years since Sir Walter Rawley seated and left 30 men and four pieces of Ordnance, at the Creek neer Cape James, by the Dutch called Hoarkill, by us Roymont, and by the Indians Cui Achomoca; and so the next river by us called Hudsons river, of the name of Hudson an English man, the discoverer thirty five years since, who sold his discovery, plots and cards to the Dutch; and so Cabot discovered severall rivers and countries all along the coast North-East, now called New England, and divided in nine severall Governments, and further discovered Port Royall, and that part called New Scotland, and set up Crosses, where you may see in the French Bock called New France, the French found an old Crosse all mossy, in an eminent place at the head of that Bay and Port, and discovered all that coast and New-found-land, and that called Terra de Laborador, or New Britian, as far as the frozen strait of Davis; Shortly after one Master Hore in the Reign of King Henry the 8th, renued this actual possession, atturnment of the Indian Kings, brought home divers of the chief Indian Kings to England, who gave their Homage and Oath of fidelity for these countries to King Henry the eight in person sitting on his throne in State in his Palace Hall at Westminster. Then Virginia being granted, settled, and all that part now called Maryland, New Albion, and New Scotland, being part of Virginia, Sir Thomas Dale, and Sir Samuel Argoll, Captains and Counsellors of Virginia, hearing of divers Aliens and Intruders, and Traders without licence, with a Vessell and forty soldiers landed at a place called Mount Desert in Nova Scotia neer S. Johns river, or Twede, possest by the French, there killed some French, took away their Guns and dismantled the Fort, and in their return landed at Manhatas Isle in Hudsons river, where they found four houses built, and a pretended Dutch Governour, under the West-India Company of Amsterdam share or part; who kept trading BOATS, and trucking with the Indians; but the said Knights told him their Commission was to expell him and all Aliens Intruders on his Majesties Dominion and Territories, this being part of Virginia, and this river an English discovery of Hudson an English man, the Dutch man contented them for their charge and voiage, and by his Letter sent to Virginia and recorded, submitted himself, Company and Plantation to his Majesty, and to the Governour and government of Virginia; but the next pretended Dutch Governour in Maps and printed Cards, calling this part New Netherland, failing in paying of customes at his return to Plymouth in England, was there with his Bever goods and person, attached to his damage of 1500 l. whereupon at the suit of the Governour and Councell of Virginia, his now Majesty by his Embassadour in Holland, complaining of the said Aliens intrusion on such his Territories and Dominions, the said Lords, the States of Holland, by their publique instrument declared, That they did not avow, nor would protect them, being a private party of the Amsterdam West-India Company, but left them to his Majesties will and mercy: whereupon three severall Orders from the Councell Table, and Commissions have been granted for the expelling and removing them thence, of which they taking notice, and knowing their weaknesse and want of victuals, have offered to sell the same for 2500 l. And lastly, taking advantage of our present war and destractions, now ask 7000 l. and have lately offered many affronts and damages to his Majesties subjects in New England: and in generall endanger all his Majesties adjoyning Countries, most wickedly, feloniously, and traiterously, contrary to the Marine and Admirall Laws of all Christians, sell by whole sale guns, powder, shot and ammunition to the Indians, instructing them in the use of our fights and arms; insomuch as 2000 Indians by them armed, Mohacks, Raritans, and some of Long Isle with their own guns so sold them, fall into war with the Dutch, destroyed all their scattering Farms and Boors, in forcing them all to retire to their Up fort 40 leagues up that river, and to Manhatas, for all or most retreating to Manhatas, it is now a pretty town of trade having more English then Dutch: and it is very considerable that three years since Stuy their Governour put out his Declaration, confessing that the neighbour English might well be offended with their selling Indians arms and ammunition, but being but a few and so scattered, they could not live else there, or trade, the Indians refusing to trade or suffer the Dutch to plow without they would sell them guns. The like folly they committed, and inconvenience to themselves, and all English, for eight years since, in their West-India Fleet, battered by the Spanish Armado, they brought home forty Swedish poor soldiers; and hearing that Captain Young and Master Evelin had given over their Fort begun at Eriwomeck within Delaware Bay, there halfe starved and tottered they left them, who learning the Indian language and finding much talk and trials of a gold mine there, though in truth fifty shillings charges produced of that light sand but nine shillings in gold, and therefore was of Captain Young that tried it slighted; yet one Bagot under the Swedes name and Commission, there traded to crosse the Dutch of Manhatas, and to undersell them, and left and seated there eighteen Swedes, who proclaiming a gold mine drew more to them, and have gotten a great trade; and now this last Summer fifteene Dutch had a skirmish; the Swedes pulled down a Dutch trading house, and doe both undersell them, and spoiled much their and English trading with the Indians, both striving to please and side with the Indians, both entertaining and refusing to return all English fugitives and servants. The Swedes hiring out three of their souldiers to the Sasquehannocks, have taught them the use of our arms and fights, and marching with them into the Kings owne Colony of Virginia, have caried thence the King Pawtomeck prisoner, and expelled his and eight other Indian Nations in Maryland civilized and subject to the English Crown. Now if a Proclamation of open war be set out against the Dutch and Swedes for this their villany, and all English forbid to trade, victuall or relieve them, they must both vanish, especially if those bad English that live, adhere and obey these Aliens in these his Majesties countries be warned of the statute of King James of famous memory, in these words: That all Subjects giving any obedience or acknowledegment to any forain Prince, State, Pope, or Potentate, within his Majesties Territories and Dominions in England or beyond the sea, is a traitor, and shall forfeit and suffer as a traitour. And certainly all English, and chiefly those of New England, being ready in twenty four hours, will joyn to expel them both to regain their own trade, to get their Seates, and to be rid of the danger of armed gunning Indians.


WHereas that part of America, or North Virginia, lying about 39 degrees at Delaware Bay called the Province of New Albion, is scituate in the best and same temper, and as Italy, between too cold Germany, and too hot Barbary: so this lying just midway betweene New England, 200 miles North, and Virginia 150 miles South, where now are settled 8000 English, and 140 ships in trade, is freed from the extream cold and barrennesse of the one and heat and aguish Marshes of the other, and is like Lombardy, and a rich fat soil, plain, and having 34 rivers on the main land, 17 great Isles, and partaketh of the healthiest aire and most excellent commodities of Europe, and replenished with the goodliest woods of Oaks and all Timber for ships and Masts, Mulberries for silk, sweet Cypresse, Cedars, Pines, and Firres, 4 sorts of Grapes for wine, and Raisins, and with the greatest variety of choice fruits, fish, and fowl, stored with all sorts of corn, yeelding 5, 7, and 10 quarters an acre: Silkgras, salt, good Mines and Diers ware, 5 sorts of Deer, Buffes, and huge Elks to plow and work, all bringing 3 young at once. The Uplands covered many moneths with berries, roots, chestnuts, walnuts, Beech and Oak Mast to feed them, Hogges and Turkeys, 500 in a flock, and having neer the Colony of Manteses 400000 acres of plain mead land, and meer levell, to be flowed and fludded by that river, for corn, rice, rapes, flax and hemp. After 17 years trading and discovery there and triall made, is begun to be planted and stored by the Governour and Company of New Albion, consisting of forty four Lords, Baronets, Knights and Merchants, who for the true informing of themselves, their friends, Adventurers and Partners by Residents and Traders there four severall years out of their Journall Books, namely, by Captaine Browne, a Ship-master, and Master Stafford his Mate, and by Captaine Claybourne 14 years there trading, and Constantine his Indian there born and bred, and by Master Robert Evelin 4 years there; yet by eight of their hands subscribed and enrolled doe testifie this to be the true state of the Country, of the Land, and Delaware Bay or Charles River, which is further witnessed by Captaine Smith and other books of Virginia and by New Englands Prospect, new Canaan, Captain Powels Map, and other descriptions of New England and Virginia.

Master Evelins Letter.

Good Madam:

SIr Edmund our noble Governour and Lord Earl Palatine, persisting still in his noble purpose to goe on with his plantation in Delaware or Charles river, just midway between New England and Virginia, where with my Uncle Young I severall years resided, hath often informed himselfe both of me and Master Stratton, as I perceive by the hands subscribed of Edward Monmouth, Tenis Palee, and as Master Buckham, Master White, and other Ship-masters, and Saylors, whose hands I know, and it to be true, that there lived and traded with me, and is sufficiently instructed of the state of the country, and people there, and I should very gladly according to his desire have waited on you into Hamshire to have informed your Honour in person, had not I next weeke been passing to Virginia. But neverthelesse to satisfie you of the truth, I thought good to write unto you my knowledge, and first to describe you from the North side of Delaware unto Hudsons river, in Sir Edmunds Patent, called new Albion, which lieth just between New England and Maryland, and that Ocean sea, I take it to be about 160 miles. I finde some broken land, Isles and Inlets, and many small Isles at Egbay: But going to Delaware Bay, by Cape May, which is 24 miles at most. and is as I understand very well set out and printed in Captain Powels Map of New England, done as is told mee by a draught I gave to M. Daniel the plot-maker, which Sir Edmund saith you have at home, on that North side about five miles within a port, or rode for any Ships called the Nook, and within lieth the King of Kechemeches, having as I suppose about 50 men, and 12 leagues higher a little above the Bay and Bar is the river of Manteses, which hath 20 miles on Charles river, and 30 miles running up a fair navigable deep river all a flat levell of rich and fat black Marsh mould, which I think to be 300000 acres: in this Sir Edmund intendeth as he saith to settle, and there the King of Manteses hath about 100 Bow-men, next above about 6 leagues higher is a fair deep river 12 miles navigable, where is Freestone, and there over against is the King of Sikonesses, and next is Asomoches river and King with an hundred men, and next is Eriwoneck a King of forty men, where we sate down, and five miles above is the King of Ramcock with a hundred men, and four miles higher the King of Axion with two hundred men, and next to him tenne leagues overland an inland King of Calcefar, with an hundred and fifty men, and then there is in the middle of Charles river two fair woody Isles, very pleasant and fit for Parks, the one of a thousand acres, the other of fourteen hundred, or thereabout. And six leagues higher neer a Creek called Mosilian, the King having two hunded men. And then we come to the Fals made by a rock of lime-stone, as I suppose it is, about sixty and five leagues from the sea, near to which is an Isle fit for a City, all materials there to build; and above, the river fair and navigable, as the Indians inform me, for I went but ten miles higher. I doe account all the Indians to be eight hundred, and are in severall factions and war against the Sasquehannocks, and are all extream fearfull of a gun, naked and unarmed against our shot, swords, and pikes. I had some bikering with some of them, and they are of so little esteem, as I durst with fifteen men sit down, or trade in despight of them, and since my return eighteene Swedes are settled there, and so sometime sixe Dutch doe in a boat trade without fear of them.

I saw there an infinite quantity of Bustards, Swans, Geese and Fowl, covering the shoares as within the like multitude of Pigeons and store of Turkies of which I tried one to weigh forty and sixe pounds. There is much variety and plenty of delicate fresh and sea-fish, and shell-fish, and Whales or Grampuses: Elks, Deere that bring three young at a time, and the woods bestrewed many moneths with Chest-nuts, Wall-nuts, and Mast of severall sorts to feed them and Hogs, that would increase exceedingly. There the barren grounds have four kindes of Grapes and many Mulberries with Ash, Elms, and the tallest and greatest Pines and Pitch trees that I have seen. There are Cedars, Cypresses and Sassafras, with wilde fruits, pears, wilde cherries, pine-apples, and the dainty Parsemenas. And there is no question but Almonds, and other fruits of Spain will prosper, as in Virginia. And (which is a good comfort) in four and twenty houres you may send or goe by sea to New England or Virginia, with a fair winde, you may have cattle, and from the Indians two thousand barrels of corn, at twelve pence a bushel in truck, so as victuals are there cheaper and better then to be transported: Neither doe I conceive any great need of a Fort or Charge where there is no enemy.

If my Lord Palatine will bring with him three hundred men or more, there is no doubt but that he may doe very well and grow rich, for it is a most pure healthfull air, and such pure wholesome springs, rivers, and waters, as are delightfull, of a Desert, as can be seen, with so many varieties of several flowers, trees, and forests for swine. So many fair risings and prospects, all green and verdant: and Maryland a good friend and neighbour, in four and twenty hours, ready to comfort and supply.

And truly I beleeve, my Lord of Baltamore wil be glad of my Lord Palatines Plantation and assistance against any enemy or bad neighbour. And if my Lord Palatine employ some men to sow flaxe, hemp and rapes in those rich Marishes or build ships and make pipe-stayes, and load some ships with these wares, or fish from the Northward, he may have any money, ware or company brought him by his own ships, or the ships of Virginia or New England all the year.

And because your Honour is of the noble house of the Pawlets, and as I am informed, desire to lead many of your friends and kindred thither, whom as I honour I desire to serve, I shall intreat you to beleeve mee as a Gentleman and Christian, I write you nothing but the truth, and hope there to take opportunity in due season to visit you, and doe all the good offices in Virginia my place or friends can serve you in. And thus tendring my service, I rest


Your Honours most humble faithfull servant,

Robert Evelin.


NOw since Master Elmes letter and seven years discoveries of the Lord Governour in person, and by honest traders with the Indians, wee finde beside the Indians Kings by him known and printed, in this Province there is in all twenty three Indian Kings or chief Commanders, and besides the number of 800 by him named, there is at least 1200 under the two Raritan Kings on the North side next to Hudsons river and those come down to the Ocean about little Egbay and Sandy Barnegate, and about the South cape two small Kings with forty men a piece, called Tirans and Tiascons and a third reduced to fourteen men at Roymont, the Sasquehannocks are not now of the Naturals left above 110, though with their forced Auxiliaries the Ihon a Does, and Wicomeses they can make 250: these together are counted valiant and terrible to other cowerdly dul Indians, which they beat with the sight of guns only; but in truth meeting with English, are the basest cowards of all, though cunning and subtile to intrap and surprise on all straits, coverts, reeds, and ambushes, for at the last Maryland March against them, these 250 having surprised in the reeds, and killed three English men with the losse of one of theirs, Captain Cornwallis, that noble, right valiant, and politick soldier, losing but one man more, killed with fifty three of his, and but raw and tired Marylanders, twenty nine Indians as they confessed, though compassed round with two hundred and fifty: and Summer this twelve moneth, Captain Lewis of Maryland at the Coves drawing but twenty men out of his winde bound Sloupes, and in two small Cocke-boates, much distant, finding twenty four Canoes, and therein an hundred and forty Sasquehannocks, reduced by these three Swedes into a half moon, with intent to encompasse the first small boat before the second could reach the former, at the first volley of ten shot, and losse of one Indian, they run all away; for note generally twelve English with five foot Calivers, shoot thirty pellets, or dagge shot, and fifty yards distance and the naked Indian shooteth but one arrow, and not thirty yards distant, so as his Lordship knoweth well with such a squadron of twelve or thirteen mark-men, to encounter three hundred, and to bring off the lock the proudest Sagamoore, to bee ransomed for any Trespasse: and not to suffer any Indian or trader without his Lordships badge or stamped livery worn, to come within twenty miles of his Plantation, or ten miles of their Cattle, as in all the out-skirts of Virginia is used, but to kill them. Insomuch that the Emperour Nicotowance saying was, my countrymen tell me I am a lier, when I tell them the English men will kill you if you goe into their bounds, but valiant Captain Freeman made him no lier, when lately he killed three Indians so without badge incroaching. And therefore fair and far off is best with Heathen Indians; and fit it is to reduce all their trading to five Ports or Pallisadoed trucking houses, and to kill all straglers and such spies without ransome. Then shall christians and their cattle be safe and quiet, and severely putting to death all that sell the Indians guns, arms and ammunition, then Indians are sooner ruled, civilized and subjected, as in New England is daily seen. In Long Isle are about four Kings, and eight hundred Bow-men, most of them two hundred miles off his Lps seat of Watcessit in Charles river, these of Long Isle are well civilized, living within ten miles, and in sight of eight thousand English in that part of New England being, and the five towns in Connectacut river, and New Haven town being populous, discourageth any hostility: but chiefly his Lordships sixe good free-holding towns in Long Isle, is a bridle to check and contain them; for Southampton, Hempsteed, Flushing, Gravesand and Ainsford are placed like distinct Garisons to command them. Then between the two South Capes there are two petty Kings called Aquats and little Matankin, having both an hundred Bow-men and above Watcessit, South-west, are the black and white Mincos neer three hundred men, being speciall friends to Watcessit, and enemies to the Sasquehannocks. Now for choice seats for English, Watcessit first, where were seventy English, as Master Miles deposeth, he swearing the officers there to his Majesties allegiance, and to obedience to your Lordship as Governour, being twenty one leagues up Delaware Bay in Charles river, to which any ship may come, and about IT Manteses plain, which Master Evelin avoucheth to be twenty miles broad, and thirty long, and 50 miles washed by two fair navigable rivers, and is 300000 Acres fit to plow and sow all Corn, Tobacco, and Flaxe, and Rice, the four staples of Albion. The second seat is three miles off to Watcessit adjoyning to Charles and Cotton river, so named of six hundred l. of Cotton wilde on trees growing: and is called Ritchneck, being twenty four miles compasse, oak wood, huge Timber trees, and two foot black mould, much desired of the Virginians to plant Tobacco, they alledging each plant there dried and cured, will bring a pound, whereas worn land five and sixe to a pound, and their large leaves in the new land, and freshes, serve to lap up all the bad S. Christophers, and Barbadoes rolled Tobacco, and maketh it fire sooner: of the three upper leaves they make Varinas and Spanish. The Dutch give for this double price, and the English double for sweet sented: and though Charles river is 120 miles North of James river in Virginia, yet having a more faire constant and tempered growing heat, Tobacco three years together tried, is riper, and sooner struck by wet seasons by full three weeks, then in Virginia, and hath yeelded double the price: and no doubt cotton will grow as in Millai**, being three degrees more North-ward, though as there it dieth yearly by frost, is re-planted by the seed as a Rosebush giveth a full cod.

The third seat is at Roymont a strong, rich and fit place for a Fort. Sir Walter Rawley left there thirty men, and four guns, the Dutch seated there fifteen men and a Fort, both to plant in that rich five miles neck to Roymont river (which runneth down into Chisapoack Bay) choice Tobacco, and thereby to prejudice and undersell Virginia, as to set up a fishing Stage for Whales, these proved but Grampus, and they killing basely an Indian refusing quarter or ransome, were by the Indians killed and expelled twenty years since. This place is close to the In-south Cape, having a Creek of sixe foot water only, and two furlongs of the grand Delaware Bay: on one side is an Isthmos or Peninsule, nine miles compasse, fit for pasturage, and Hogs and Goats: and on the other side is a second Isthmos, four miles compasse, easily fenced, and is but sixty miles over land to the Northernmost and neerest part of Virginia, to drive cattle by land, and have supplies by horse and foot: and here is never ice or frost: sea fish, all oysters, and shell fish, and fowl, all winter Cod to lade ships three moneths after December fit for salt and trade: and there is a poor Indian of fourteen men only, and weak to hinder any, all the soile is under a brick earth, stone slat hard by, and timber to build.

The fourth seat is Uvedale under Websneck, and is a valley sixe miles long, sheltred by hils from the North-west windes: below it is sixe miles a thicket of four sorts of excellent great Vines running on Mulberry and Sassafras trees; there are four sorts of Grapes, the first is the Tholouse Muscat, sweet sented, the second the great foxe and thick Grape, after five moneths reaped being boyled and salted, and well fined, it is a strong red Xeres; the third a light Claret, the fourth a white Grape creeps on the land, maketh a pure GOLD colour white wine: Tenis Pale the French man of these four made eight sorts of excellent wine, and of the Muscat acute boyled that the second draught will fox a reasonable pate four moneths old: and here may be gathered and made two hundred tun in the Vintage moneth, and re-planted will mend; two other valleys there of the same Grapes and large, above Uvedale, the hill is called Websneck, environed with three rivers round, one of sixteen foot water navigable, all but a neck, a caliver shot over, easily imbarked, being 9000 acres, the cliffes all of rich black mould, with huge timber trees, most fit for Tobacco and Corn: not far off are rich lead mines, containing silver tried, and iron stone, and by it waters, and fals to drive them in an inhabited desert, no Christians or Indians neer it, where Elkes, Stagges and Deer are most quiet, most fat, and not disturbed, so as five men in three or four days kill and salt sixty Deer, or an hundred twenty sides for Summers food: four or five hundred Turkeys in a flock, Swans, Hoopers, Geese, Ducks, Teles, and other Fowles, a mile square, and seven mile together on the shores, for here is all Ches-nuts Wall-nuts, and Mast berries, and March seeds wilde Oats, and Vetches to feed them. Neer hand is also in August Custard apples, and Papawes to make the best Perry English for 100 tun in a place, and all Plums, Hurtleberries, Black Cherries, wilde Anniseed, Persimenas, and other dainty fruits, and roots, are had, as in all the huge long Meads and Marshes, sweet seg roots, ground nuts, Tucaho and Cuttinamon roots for Hogs and whole Warrens, and berries of sweet Muskerats, and here black Bears and Lions feeding on sweet foods, are killed and eaten. In the head of Chisepeack river by Tomkins and Walton, was seen a Camel Mare brown black, seven foot high, of which 300 mile West-ward are stores their skins brought and sold by the Indians confirm it.

The fifth seat is Brents fort, a steep rock, invincible and not to be battered, having an Isthmos of low hard ground like a Tongue below it environed with fresh water, and under it a Cove close to hide two ships or gallies, ships of 500 tun may come up to it, and hard by is good Mead and rich land, and Woods to plant; and in this desert is best living, stored as before with all game and their food to maintain them.

The sixt is an Ile called Palmers Ile, containing 300 acres, half meade, halfe wood; in it is a rock forty foot high, like a Tower, fit to be built on for a trading house for all the Indians of Chisepeack Gulfe: it lieth a mile from each shore in Sasquehannocks river mouth, and there four Sakers will command that river, and renue the old trade that was; it lieth in forty degrees and twelve minutes, it is most healthy, but cold neer the hils, and full as all the seventeen rivers there of eleven sorts of excellent fresh fish; the Indians in stead of salt doe barbecado or dry and smoak fish, to each house a reek or great pile, and another of Sun dried on the rocks, Strawberries, Mulberries, Symnels, Maycocks and Horns like Cucumbers.

The seventh is five mile off it, called Mount Royall or Bolalmanack hill, and more properly Belveder, for thence you may see 100 miles off high hils, above the clouds like sugar-loaves that shelter and bear off the North-west windes; here is a clear Indian field sixe miles long to plant and plow rich land, and as well stored as the rest, and under it is Elk river, having many branches navigable, in all these the Tide of fresh sweet water ebbes and flowes, and hath three fathome deep, the mouth of it is like a fort with fit Isthmos and necks, and runneth up seven leagues to a street, but eleven miles over land into Charles river, and Delaware Bay, this neck is a rare work of God, for it is 450 miles compasse to goe by sea and water, from one side to the other of this eleven miles street, and Uvedale is on one of these branches.

The eight seat is Kildorpy, neer the fals of Charles river, neer 200 miles up from the Ocean, it hath clear fields to plant and sow, and neer it is sweet large meads of clover or honysuckle, no where else in America to be seen, unlesse transported from Europe, a ship of 140 tuns may come up to these fals which is the best seat for health, and a trading house to be built on the rocks, and ten leagues higher are lead mines in stony hils.

The ninth is called Mount Ployden, the seat of the Raritan King on the North side of this Province twenty miles from Sandhay sea, and ninety from the Ocean, next to Amara hill, the retired Paradise of the children of the Ethiopian Emperour, a wonder, for it is a square rock, two miles compasse, 150 foot high, a wall-like precipice, a strait entrance, easily made invincible, where he keeps two hundred for his guard, and under it is a flat valley, all plain to plant and sow.

The Sasquehannocks new Town is also a rare, healthy and rich place, with it a Crystall broad river, but some fals below hinder navigation, and the Hooke all on the Ocean with its clear fields neer Hudsons river on one side, and a ten leagues flowing river on the south side is much commended for health and fish, were it not so Northerly.

The bounds is a thousand miles compasse, of this most temperate, rich Province, for our South bound is Maryland North bounds, and beginneth at Aquats or the Southermost or first Cape of Delaware Bay in thirty eight and forty minutes, and so runneth by, or through, or including Kent Isle, through Chisapeack Bay to Pascatway; including the fals of Pawtomecke river to the head or the Northermost branch of that river, being three hundred miles due West, and thence Northward to the head of Hudsons river fifty leagues, and so down Hudsons river to the Ocean, sixty leagues; and, thence by the Ocean and Isles acrosse Delaware Bay to the South Cape fifty leagues; in all seven hundred and eighty miles. Then all Hudsons river, Isles, Long Isle, or Pamunke, and all Isles within ten leagues of the said Province being; and note Long Isle alone is twenty broad, and one hundred and eighty miles long, so that alone is four hundred miles compasse. Now I have examined all former Patents, some being surrendered, and some adjudged void, as gotten on false suggestions, as that at the Councell Table was at Master Gorges suit, of Matachusets, and as Captain Clayborn heretofore Secretary, and now treasurer of Virginia, in dispute with Master Leonard Calvert alledgeth; that of Maryland, is likewise void in part as gotten on false suggestions: for as Cap: Clayborn sheweth the Maryland Patent in the first part declareth the Kings intention to bee to grant a land there after described, altogether dishabited and unplanted, though possest with Indians. Now Kent Isle was with many housholds of English by C. Clayborn before seated, and because his Majesty by his privy signet shortly after declared it was not his intention to grant any lands before seated and habited: and for that it lieth by the Maryland printed Card, clean North-ward within Albion, and not in Maryland, and not onely late Sea-men, but old Depositions in Claybornes hand, shew it so to be out of Maryland, and for that Albions Privy signet is elder, and before Maryland patent, Clayborn by force entred, and thrust out Master Calvert out of Kent; Next Maryland Patent coming to the Ocean, saith along by the Ocean unto Delaware Bay; that is the first Cape of the two most plain in view, and exprest in all late English and Dutch Cards; and note unto Delaware Bay is not into the Bay, nor farther then that Cape heading the Bay, being in thirty eight and forty, or at most by seven Observations I have seen, thirty eight and fifty minutes: So as undoubtedly, that is the true intended and ground bound, and line, and no farther, for the words following, are not words of Grant, but words of Declaration; that is, Which Delaware Bay lieth in forty degrees where New England ends; these are both untrue, and so being declarative is a false suggestion, is void, for no part of Delaware Bay lieth in forty. Now if there were but the least doubt of this true bounds, I should wish by consent or commission, a perambulation and boundary, not but there is land enough for all, and I hold Kent Isle having lately but twenty men in it, and the Mill and Fort pulled down, and in war with all the Indians neer it, not worth the keeping.

But it is materiall to give a touch of Religion and Government, to satisfy the curious and well-minded Adventurer. For Religion it being in England yet unsettled, severall Translations of Bibles, and those expounded to each mans fancy, breeds new Sects, I conceive the Holland way now practised best to content all parties: first, by Act of Parliament or Grand Assembly, to settle and establish all the Fundamentals necessary to salvation, as the three Creeds, the Ten Commandments, Preaching on the Lords day, and great days, and Catechising in the afternoon, the Sacrament of the Altar and Baptisme; But no persecution to any dissenting, and to all such as to the Walloons free Chapels; and to punish all as seditious, and for contempt, as BITTER, rail and condemn others of the contrary; for this argument or perswasion ALL Religion, Ceremonies, or Church-Discipline, should be acted in mildnesse, love and charity, and gentle language, not to disturb the peace or quiet of the Inhabitants, but therein to obey the Civill Magistrate.

For the Politique and Civill Government, and Justice, Virginia and New England is our president: First, the Lord head Governour, a Deputy Governour, Secretary of Estate, or Seal keeper, and twelve of the Councell of State or upper House: and these or five of them is also a Chancery Court. Next out of Counties and Towns, at a free election and day prefixed, thirty Burgesses, or Commons. Once yearly the tenth of November these meet, as a Parliament or Grand Assembly, and make Laws, or repeal, alter, explain, and set taxes and rates for common defence, and without full consent of Lord, upper and lower House nothing is done: Appeals are here also tried, all criminall cases for life, above only by two Juries, or actions at Law, a Jury on either side may be called, and by them tried: and any before judgement, may stop the Law, and be tried in Equity; The two months Courts may try before four Justices of Peace, any action not exceeding 101. or 1500 l. of Tobacco, at 4s. charge onely, and plead without atturney; an Appeal lieth thence to each quarter, or Chancery first Court above, and from thence an appeal to the Grand Assembly: any matter under 40 s. value, or 200 l. of Tobacco, to be ended by the next Justice at 1 s. charge, no deposition to be taken but before two Justices, whereof one of the Quorum, or in Court, or before a Councell, or of Estate: and here is no Jeofails, nor Demurrers, but a Summary hearing, and a Sheriffe, and Clerk of Court, with small fees, ends all for the most part in a few words.

Last of all, how plentifully may a quiet industrious man live here, having with Corn Land, Mead and Pasture, and Timbers, and Woods covered, many months with Ches-nuts, and four other nuts, and mast for Deer, Hogs and Turkeys, Fish, Fowl, Venison, Wine and Fruits gratis? Our chiefe Staples are Tobacco, then Flax and Rice, of which in floated lands you have infinite increase, and without floating you may have, and all the winter Ship-plankes, clove board and Pipe-staves, these lade home ships twice a year hence, and for them bring you any English servants, or English or Dutch wares, cloths, stuffes, drams, wines, or what you bespeak: but surely we may easily grow rich if we will and buy no clothes, for a good Weaver brought hither, will make us of our own Flaxe nine sorts of Linnens, tufted Hollands, Velures, Velvets, Tuftaffetaes, and Plushes; and for Winter a good Glover with some onely of our own Elk-skins, maketh the best Buffe-coats, our owne Stag and Deer skins make best gentile and soldiers clothes, fittest for our Woods: a Doe-skin breeches with the fur inside in our short Winter, is better then two broad clothes and warmer, so we need no English clothing; Cattle in Virginia, and all Grain in New England brought to our doores cheaper then here; Indian Corn, or Pease, or Beans, at twelve pence a bushel, by truck with the Indians, and Rye Meal, a third, with the white and any Mayz Meal, which is all together but twenty pence, a bushell of Meale maketh the best bread, and we have more choice drinks then here, for sweet **alk and Pumpion drink hopped, is good beer, and ale we have and mault for you; and in the hot Summer rock cold water, with an eighth of Peach Vinegar is the best Beaverage: Peaches better then Apricocks by some doe feed Hogs, one man hath ten thousand trees, all Apples, Pears, Cherries, and other fruits grow here in half the time as in your cold and blasty Region, and do all Hops and Roots, Hearbs and Garden stuffe. Our days in Summer 2 hour shorter, and in Winter more comfortable two houres longer, and a warme Sun and bigger fires, and no rent to my Landlord, makes us merry. He that is lazy and will not work, needs not fear starving, but may live as an Indian, sometimes Oysters, Cockles, Wilkes, Glams, Scollons two moneths together; sometimes wilde Pease and Vetches, and Long Oats, sometimes Tuckaho, Cuttenoman ground, Nuts, Marhonions, sometimes small nuts, Filbirds, Wallnuts, Pokikerries, ten sorts of Berries, Egs of Fowl, small fish in Coves at low water will teach him to live idly.


EAch Adventurer of twenty or fifty men must provide houshold necessaries, as irons and chains for a draw-bridge, two Mares or Horses to bred or ride on, Pots, Pans, Dishes, Iron for a Cart and Plow, Chains, Sithes, and Sickles, Nets, Lines and Hooks. A sail for a fishing Shallop of three tun, and Hemp to employ his people in making them, as with hair, and canvas for quilts, as well on shipboard as demurring at the sea port, as with locks, keys, bolts, and glasse casements for his house. And generally fit Implements for the work or trade he intends.

For trade with the Indians, buy Dutch or Welch rugged cloth, seven quarters broad, a violet blew or red, at four or five shillings a yard, small hooks and fishing lines, Morris bels, Jewes-harps, Combes, trading knives, Hatchets, Axes, Hoes, they will bring you Venison, Turkeys, and Fowles, Flesh, &c. for a pennyworth of corn at twelve pence a bushell.

Provisions for each man, and the charge from London.

1. Canvas, or linnen clothes, Shooes, Hats, &c. costing here foure pounds for two men to buy Cows, Goats, and Hogs in Virginia, which there yeeld sixe pound, and will buy one Cow, and Oxe, two Goats two Sowes, which one each man comes to 2 l. 0. 0.

2. Fraight for a Passenger, and his half Tun of provisions and Tooles. 1 l. 10. 0.

3. Victuals till his own stock and crop maintain him for seven moneths. 3 l. 10. 0.

That is, Pease, Oatmeal and Aquavite, 7 s. five bushels of Meal, of which to be baked into Biskets, and five bushels of Malt, some must be ground and brewed for the voyage, both 1 l. 10 s. a hundred of Beefe, and Pork, 1 l. 2s. two bushels of roots, 2 s. salt fish, 2 s. Cask to carry provision 5 s. five pound of Butter 2 s.

4. One Hogshead of eares of Corn Garden seeds, Hemp, and linseed with husk and some Rice from Virginia. 0. 16. 0.

5. Armes (viz.) a Sword, Calliver five foot long, or long Pistoll, Pikehead: six pound of powder, ten pound of shot, halfe an old slight Armour that is, two to one Armour. 0. 19. 0.

6. Tools, a Spade, Axe and Shovell, 5 s. Iron and Steel to make and mend more, and two hundred of nails, 5 s. 0. 10. 0.

7. Guns and Powder for the Fort, that is to every fifty foure Murtherers, *** a barell of powder

4 l. 10 s. that is to each man 5 s.

8. A Bed and sheets of Canvas, to be filled with huls, each man a Rug 15s.

Sum totall, 10 l. 5. 0.


HEre by bringing good Labourers, and Tradesmen, the provident planters may doe well by giving shares or double wages, when each man may earn his five, nay sixe shillings a day in Tobacco, Flaxe, Rice.

2. For here the Ship-carpenters ten men a day will build a tun of shipping as in England, which with masts and yards there taken is here, and there worth ** a tun, and yet here, and there is built at 1 l. a tun wages, which is 6 s. a days work, having the Timber without money.

3. Here in 14 days they make a thousand of Pipe-staves, worth here foure pound, and at the Canaries twenty pound a thousand, and so get six shillings a days work.

4. Here in making Iron they save 5 l. a tun in the price of wood, and 3 l. more in digging the Iron mine, and saving land carriage of it, and of the CHARCOALE for mine is taken on the Sea beach, and wood floated down the Rivers, and so each man earns 5 s. 10 d. a day, Iron valued at 12 l. per tun.

5. Here the constant trade of 350 ships, and 7000 men a fishing beginne leave cold Newfoundland small fish, and late taken, when this is before theirs two moneths at the market, 100 fish here yeelds four quintales, there scarce one, and here is fish all the year, there but only in the four warm months, and is for nine weeks work each man above his diet, passage, and returne, gets twenty pound, and twelve pound a man, and herein dried Base, in Sturgeon, in dressed Mackrell, Herrings, and Pilchers, is got as well as well as in Cod-fish, sixe shil. and eight shil. a day. And this returns ready French and Spanish coin.

6. Here the glorious ripening Sunne as warme as Italy or Spain, will bring rare fruits, wines, and such store of Anniseed and Licoras, as well as Bay-salt made without boyling, only in pans with the Sun, that each labourer may make 6 bushels a day, worth in these three 12 s. a day, And this maiden soyl, so comforted with the Suns glittering beams, and being digged, and set with the Indian Wheat, and their Beans and Pease, with 40 s. charge in 40 days work with seed, yeelds 10 quarters an acre, the same Wheat being ten times as big and as weighty as ours, besides Potatoes, Woad, Madder, Roots, and many Plants, and Tobacco, will yeeld half a tun of Flax, and a tun of Hemp, worth 12 l. an acre, and 6 s. a days work.

7. Here as in Province in France, Walnut-Milk, or Oyle ground and pressed, will yeeld the gatherer ten gallons, and 10 s. a days work.

8. Here the Land lieth covered seven moneths with Beech, and Oke Mast, Walnuts, chestnuts, and three moneths with Groundnuts, Seg and other roots, and wilde Pease, and Fetches yearly, so as forty Hogs for one, and ninety Turkeys, Partridges, Heathpoults, and tame Poultry, eating their fill, for ONCE ordinary encreased.

9. Here the Sope and Pot-ashes men paying in England 12 d. a bushel and 4 d. carriage for ashes, and 20 l. a tun for Pot-ashes, may make them at a quarter and lesse: and get 8 s. a days work, by cutting, reeking, and burning whole plains of Fern, Brambles, and wilde Vines, being thrice as stronge as Wood-ashes.

10. Here a ship may goe, and return in five moneths laded, and comfortable, see their friends, making two voyages a year, in a healthy ayre, free from Enemies and Turks, and get two for one each voyage: that is, four for one, of that stock, and proceed in a year.

11. Here the kinde Gentleman that in England doth not live without deep mortgages, suretiship, law-suits and troubles, may here settle, and avoid ill company, and tempting occasions, and live in plenty, and variety of all sports, hunting Deere, hawking Fowl, fishing, and many more sports, and sorts of game, as with dainty fruits; and lay up his spare rents.

12. Here the Soldier, and Gentlemen wanting employment, and not hire to labor, without going to war to kil Christians for 5 s. a week in the mouth of the roaring Cannon, or in a Siege threatned with famine, and pestilence: and OFTEN together against a few naked salvages, may like a devout Apostoliqued soldier with sword, and the word to civilize, and convert them to be his Majesties Lieges, and by trading with them for furs, get his ten shillings a day, and at home intermixing sport with pleasure, with profit, store his Parks with Elks and fallow Deer, are fit to ride, milke or drawe, the first as big as Oxen, and bringing three a year, and with five hundred Turkeys in a flock got by nets, in stalling get his five shil. a day at least.

Passage and diet of a man, his bedding and chest thither, 5 l. 0. 0.

Bedding will cost 15 s. drams, fruit and spice, 1. 0. 0.

In goods to buy a Cow, and stock each man here, 2. 0. 0.

Arms, Ammunition and Tools, each man 2. 0. 0.

Sum totall 10. 0. 0.

All adventurers of 500 l. to bring fifty men shall have 5000 acres, and a manor with Royalties, at 5 s. rent, and whosoever is willing so to transport himself or servant at 10 l. a man, shall for each man have 100 acres freely granted for ever, and at may be instructed how in a moneth to passe, and in 20 days to get fit servants and artificers for wages, diet, and clothes, and apprentices according to the 3 Statutes 5 Eliz. All which after 5 years service, are to have 30 acres of free land, and some stock, and bee free-holders.



{1} Sir Jo. Davis fol. 59.

{2} Fol. 60.

{3} Fol. 62.

{4} Fol. 67.

{5} Sir E. Coke Fol. 211.

{6} Fol. 215.

{7} Fol. 221.

{8} Fol. 264.

{9} Sir Jo. Davis Fol. 60.

{10} Sir E. Coke Fol. 216.