First Hand Accounts

A True Declaration of the estate of the Colonie in Virginia, With a confutation of such scandalous reports as have tended to the disgrace of so worthy an enterprise.
Published by advise and direction of the Councell of Virginia.

London,Printed for William Barret, and are to be sold at the blacke Beare in Pauls Church-yard.1610.

A true declaration of the estate in Virginia.

There is a great distance, betwixt the vulgar opinion of men, and the judicious apprehension of wise men. Opinion is as blind Ordipus, who could see nothing, but would heare all things, Hinc aucupari verba rumoris vagi, to hawke after the winged report of a vagabond rumor. But judgement, is as Salomon in his throne, able by the spirit of wisedome, to discerne betwixt contesting truth, and falshood: neither depending on the popular breath of fame, which is ever partiall, nor upon the event of good designes, which are ever casuall. These two commanders of our affections, have divided the universall spirits of our land, whilst (in the honorable enterprise for plantation in Virginia) some, are carried away with the tide of vulgar opinion, and others, are encouraged, by the principles of religion, and reason. But because, it is for hawkes and not for men, to build their nests in aires, and because the honor and prosperity of this so noble an action, is eclipsed by the interposition of clamorous & tragicall narrations: the compiler of this relation endevoureth to wash away those spots, which foule mouths (to justifie their owne disloialty) have cast upon so fruitfull, so fertile, and so excellent a country. Wherein he professeth, that he will relate nothing (concerning Virginia) but what he hath from the secrets of the judiciall councell of Virginia, from the letters of the Lord La Ware, from the mouth of Sir Thomas Gates, whose wisdomes (he conceiveth) are not so shallow, as easily to be deceived of others, nor consciences so wretched, as by pretences to deceive others.

But when a matter of such consequence, is not to be shufled over with supine negligence, and when no man raiseth a faire building, that laith not a firme foundation, it will not be impertinent, to dig a little deeper, that we may build a great deale higher: and from the universall policie of all civill states (in replenishing the world with colonies of domesticall subjects) to derive this wisedome to our populous state and country.

Colonies. That which Origen said of Christs actions in vertues morall, holdeth proportion with Gods actions in government politicall, Dei facta, sunt nostra præpcepta, Gods actions, are our instructions: who (in the eleventh of Genesis) turned the greatest cursing, into the greatest blessing, and by confusion of tongues, kept them from confusion of states; scattering those cloven people, into as many colonies over the face of the earth, as there are diversities of languages in the earth. Now if Tertullians rule be true, Omne genus ab origine censendum that every action is most beutifull in the originall. Can there be a better beginning then from God, whose wisedome is not questioned, and whose footsteps in all succeeding ages have been followed. Search the records of divine truth, and humane monuments of state, you shall find, Salmanasar transporting the Babilonians, and other Gentiles, to Samaria: and replenishing with the captives of Israell, the dispeopled confines of Media.

You shall find that 140. yeeres after the destruction of Troy, the Ionian colony, was carried from Greece, to Asia: by which that famous City of Ephesus was first builded, and inhabited. You shall find the Egiptians, planted Babilon, Argos, and Athens. The Phonicians first inhabiting Carthage, Utica, and Thebes. That Timolcon and the city of Corinth, at one time repeopled Sicilie, with 10000 soules. That the Romans deduced 53. colonies out of the city of Rome into the wombe of Italy. That Bremius an Englishman by birth, but sonne in law to the King of France, with an equall third part of the kingdome, entred into the hart of Italy, gave the prime sacke to the City of Rome, and diverted from thence to Gallogræcia, whose offspring possesse that land unto this day.

That the Admirall of France, among all the feares and discouragements of civill wars, never gave over the project of plantation in Florida.

Which heroicall actions, have not beene undertaken by so mighty states and Princes, upon triviall and vulgar motives, when by these courses that first blessing (of crescite and multiplicamini, increase and multiplie) hath beene sanctified: the meaner sorte have beene provided: the matter of plagues, famine and sedition, hath beene exhausted: the fennes of a state politique were drained: the enemies of their peace were bridled: the revenues of their treasurey were augmented: and the lines of their dominions were enlarged.

Which divine, humane, externall, and domesticall, examples, doe shine before us, as a Pharaoes towre, that wee should not make shipwracke of our intentions, concerning Virginia.

Blacke envie, and pale feare, being not able to produce any arguments, why that should bee lawfull for France, which is (in us) unlawfull: that which to Rome was possible, (to us) is impossible: that which to others is honourable, and profitable, (in us) should bee traduced, as incommodious, base, and contemptible: Three heads. Lawfull, Possible, Profitable. wherefore under these three heads of lawfulnesse, possiblility, and commoditie, will I marshall all those reasons, which may resolve the religious, encourage the personall, confirme the noble, and satisfie the timorous adventurer.

First, if it bee unlawfull: it must be so, either in respect of the law of God, or in regard to the lawe of man. If in respect of Gods lawe, (considering our primarie end is to plant religion, our secondarie and subalternate ends are for the honour and profit of our nation) I demand a resolution of this plaine question: whether it bee not a determined truth, that the Gospell should bee preached, to all the world, before the end of the world? If, it must bee preached, (as heaven and earth must passe awaie, but Gods word shall not pass awaie) then must it bee preached, one of these three waies: Either meerly Apostolically, without the helpe of man, (without so much as a staffe) or meerly imperiallie, when a Prince, hath conquered their bodies, that the Preachers may feede their soules; Or mixtly, by discoverie, and trade of marchants; where all temporall meanes are used for defence, and security, but none for offence, or crueltie. For the first (to preach Apostolicallie) it is simplie impossible: except wee had the gift of tongues, that everie nation might heare the word of God in their owne language; or the guift of miracles, that it might be confirmed, with wonders from heaven; which two beeing ceased, questionlesse the identicall commision of the Apostles is expired: Or if yet the matter bee urged, that God by fishers did convert Emperors and therefore that wee must adventure our lives without humane helpe; yet must it bee remembred, that there is no Apostolicall preaching, but where wee may expect either their conversion, or our martyrdome. But we can expect neither, not their conversion who cannot understand us, nor our martyrdome, when the people of Florida, did devoure the Preachers of the word without speaking any word. Non quia Christiani, sed quia homines, not because they were christian men, but because they were men, wee cannot be said to be martyrs, when wee are not killed because wee are christians. And therefore the Jesuite Acosta confesseth (notwithstanding Bellarmines relation of Indian miracles) that they have no tongues, they have no signes from heaven, and they can have no martyrdome, and by consequent there is no means left of Apostolicall preaching.

For the second, to preach the Gospell to a nation conquered, and to set their soules at liberty, when we have brought their bodies to slaverie; It may be a matter sacred in the Preachers, but I know not how justifiable in the rulers. Who for their meere ambition, doe set upon it, the glosse of religion. Let the divines of Salamanca, discusse that question, how the possessor of the west Indies, first destroied, and then instructed.

The third, belongs to us, who by way of marchandizing and trade, doe buy of them the pearles of earth, and sell to them the pearles of heaven; which action, if it be unlawfull, it must proceede from one of these grounds, either because we come to them, or trade with them, or tarrie and dwell and possesse part of their country amongst them.

Is it unlawfull because wee come to them? why is it not a dutie of christianitie, to behold the imprinted footsteps of Gods glorie, in every region under heaven? Is it not against the lawe of nations, to violate a peaceable stranger, or to denie him harbour. The Ethiopians, Egyptians, and men of China, are branded with a foule marke of sanguinarie and barbarous inhumanity, for blessing their Idols, with the bloud of strangers. It is not unlawfull to trade with them, except Salomon shall bee condemned for sending for gold to Ophir, Abraham for making a league with Abimilech, and all christendome shall be traduced, for having comerce with Turks and miscreants.

Finallie, it is not unlawfull, that wee possesse part of their land and dwell with them, and defend our selves from them. Partlie because their is no other, moderate, and mixt course, to bring them to conversion, but by dailie conversation, where they may see the life, and learne the language each of other.

Partlie, because there is no trust to the fidelitie of humane beasts, except a man will make a league, with Lions, Beares, and Crocodiles.

Partlie because there is roome sufficient in the land (as Sichem sometime said) for them, and us: the extent of an hundred miles, being scarce peopled with 2000. inhabitants.

Partlie, because they have violated the lawe of nations, and used our Ambassadors as Ammon did the servants of David: If in him it were a just cause to warre against the Ammonites, it is lawfull, in us, to secure our selves, against the infidels.

But chieflie because Paspehay, one of their Kings, sold unto us for copper, land to inherit and inhabite. Powhatan, their cheife King, received voluntarilie a crown and a scepter, with a full acknowledgment of dutie and submission.

Principallie when Captaine Newport was with Powhatan at Warow a comaco hee desired him to come from James towne as a place unholesome, and to take possession of an other whole kingdome which he gave unto him. If any man alleadge, that this was done in subtlety, not that they ever meant we should possesse them, but that they might first gaine by us, and then destroy us. This makes our cause, much the juster, when God turned their subteltie, to our utilitie: giving unto us a lawfull possession, (as Pharaoe gave Goshen to Israell; or Ephron sold his cave to Abraham) and freeing us, from all impious and sinister construction. If anie man alleadge, that yet wee can possesse no farther limits, than was allotted by composition, and that fortitudo sine iustitia, est iniquitatis Materia, fortitude without justice, is but the firebrand of iniquitie. Let him know that Plato defineth it, to bee no injustice, to take a sword out of the hand of a mad man; That Austen hath allowed it, for a lawfull offensive warre, quod ulcisitur injurias that revengeth bloudie injuries. So that if just offenses shall arise, it can bee no more injustice to warre against infidells, than it is when upon just occasions wee warre against Christians. And therefore I cannot see, but that these truths, will fanne away all those chassie imputations, which anie Romish boasters (that challenge a monopolie of all conversions) will cast upon it, or any scrupulous conscience can impute unto it. Certainlie the Church of Geneva in the yeeare 1555. determined in a Synode, whereof (Calvine) was president, to send Peter Richier, and William Quadrigarius, under a French Captaine to Brasilia, who although they were supplanted, by the comming of the Cardinall of Loraine, and the trecherie of their double hearted leader, yet would not the Church of Geneva, (after a Synodicall consultation) have sent their ministers to such an adventure, had not all scruples, (in their judgement) beene cleared by the light of Scripture.

When therefore, it is a sweete smelling sacrifice, to propagate the name of Jesus Christ, when the Babylonish Inchantresse (if her owne Calenders, are to bee credited) hath compassed sea, and land, to make, sixe, eight, or ten millions, of Romish proselites. When there is no other, mixt, moderate, course, to transport the Virginian soules to heaven. When there hath beene a reall concession from their rurall Emperour, that hath licensed us to negociate among them, and to possesse their countrie with them. When there is more unpeopled continent of earth, than wee and they (before the dissolution of the pillars of heaven) can overburden with multitude. When we never intend to play the Rehoboams, and to scourge them with scorpions. It is not good, to create more sinnes, then God ever censured: nor to brand that action with impietie, which God hath begun for promulgating of his glorie Nunquid ideo deforme est, quia figura mentitur? is the action therefore deformed, because a false glasse doth slaunder it?

Concerning the other braunch of this discourse, wherein some slie whisperers would seeme to cast an aspersion of injustice upon the action, supposing some forraine Prince to have a former interest.

Certainlie hee is but a rotten subject that quarrells the actions of his countrie, descrying a serpentine stinge under the faire leaves of pietie. And though it bee not for a theoreticall Scholar, to circumscribe the dominions of Princes, yet a few proofes from antiquitie, shall suffice to controwle ignorant or presumptuous follie.

In the yeare 1170. Madocke the sonne of Owen Guyneth Prince of Northwales (leaving the land in contention betwixt his two brethren Howell and David) sailed into the West Indies, and after a second, and a third returne, and supplie, setled himselfe in those dominions.

In the yeere 1495. John Cabot a Venetian, but the indenized subject of King Henrie the seaventh discovered the North parts of America, to Meta incognita, and so it was annexed to the Crowne of England.

As for the donation of Alexander the sixt; it is but a reciprocall clawing, when Emporers create their servants Bishops universall, and shavelings create their Lords, Emperors generall.

If the donation of Constantine were not more virtuall for Saint Peters partrimonie, wee should have neede of more purgatories, to maintaine fuell in the Popes kitchen: for if the kingdome of Christ was not on earth, what a transubstantiated power, doth the pretented Vicar of Christ claime, to dispose all the kingdomes of the earth. Petrarch recordeth a memorable historie, of Sautius brother to the King of Spaine, who was elected generall against the Saracens of Egypt, and comming to Rome for that purpose, the Bishop of Rome, made it to bee proclaimed in the Consistorie that hee bestowed the kingdome of Egypt upon Sautius. Sautius understanding this favour, (by his interpreter) commanded to proclaime the Pope, great Caleph of Baldacho: perfuming the sonne of pride, with his owne smoke.

The Pope having no more power, to make Sautius a King, then Sautius had power to make the Pope a Caleph. Let such retailers of Crownes remember, who it was that sometime saide, all these will I give thee if thou wilt fall downe, and worship me, And yet with this item that the divell pretended to give no more than he saw.

These points beeing thus defined, I come to the possibility. Against which three maine impediments are objected. First the daungerous passage by sea, secondlie the barrennesse of the countrie, thirdly the unholesomness of the climate: the storme that seperated the admirall from the fleete prooving the first, the famine amongst our men importing the second, the sicknesse of our men arguing the third. All which discouragements doe astonish our men with feare, as though our expences were unprofitable, when our ends are impossible.

But before I shall enter into this discourse I must crave leave to make a necessarie digression, and to justifie his reputation whose worth is of speciall regard in this plantation.

Sir Thomas Gates supposeth himselfe accused publiquelie and in print of a treeble defect.

First that hee ranne so farre Southerlie and into the Tropique, that the heat caused the infection in the ships.

Secondlie that hee gave a sealed directions, that if they were seperated by anie storme, that they should make for the Baruada in the West Indies, which direction himselfe following, it caused his shipwracke, but the other shippes, (upon better judgement) declining these instructions, arived safelie in Virginia.

Thirdlie that hee caried in one bottome all the principall Commissioners who should successivelyie have governed the Colonie. Against all which imputations, hee maketh this just Apologie.

First hee confesseth that a little before they came unto the Canaries, that hee entred into consultation with Sir George Summers, Captaine Newport, and the other of chiefe regarde in the fleete, wherein it was resolved by an uniformitie of consent, to runne southerlie into the Tropique, which they did, till they came to the height of foure and twentie, but hee denieth that this course was anie cause of infection. For in the Faulcon, the Blessing, the Lyon, (and in the Admirall wherein were one hundred and fiftie soules) there was not one sicke of the pestilence nor other disease; In the other two ships the infection was somewhat hote, but they shipped the same from London; To the second hee affirmeth, that hee first gave them sealed instructions (not to bee opened till a time of storme) which directed them to the Baruada, But after when they came to the height of foure and twentie, hee countermaunded those directions by word of mouth, and assigned them, (that if they were scattered) that they should make with all speede for Virginia. Which himselfe (esteeming the price of time unvaluable) woulde have executed, had not the violent leake of the shippe hindred him, So that the other ships safe arivall in Virginia, proceeded originallie from his advise and authoritie.

To the third, he briefly signifieth, that no other Commissioners were in his Ship, but such, (as for especiall reasons) were precisely and peremptorily appointed, by the Councell of Virginia. And thus you see, that Tacitus wisely observed two great enemies of great actions, Ignorantiam veri, & Invidiam, the ignorance of Truth, and the emulation of Vertue.

To returne therefore unto the maine channell of this discourse, and to dispell the clouds of feare, that threaten shipwracks, and sea-dangers: For we are not to extenuate the seas tempestuous violence, nor yet therefore to dispaire of Gods assisting providence. For true it is, that when Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Summers, and Captaine Newport, were in the height of 27. and the 24. of July 1609. there arose such a storme, as if Jonas had been flying unto Tarshish: the heavens were obscured, and made an Egyptian night of three daies perpetuall horror; the women lamented; the hearts of the passengers failed; the experience of the sea Captaines was amased: the skill of the marriners was confounded: the Ship most violently leaked, and though two thousand tunne of water by pumping from Tuesday noone till Fryday noone was discharged, notwithstanding the Ship was halfe filled with water, and those which laboured to keepe others from drowning were halfe drowned themslves in labouring. But God that heard Jonas crying out of the belly of hell, he pittied the distresses of his servants; For behold, in the last period of necessitie, Sir George Summers descryed land, which was by so much the more joyfull, by how much their danger was despairefull. The Islands on which they fell were the Bermudos, a place hardly accessable, through the environing rocks and dangers: notwithstanding they were forced to runne their Ship on shoare, which through Gods providence fell betwixt two rockes, that caused her to stand firme and not immediately to be broken, God continuing his mercie unto them, that with their long Boats they transported to land before night, all their company, men, women, and children, to the number of one hundred and fiftie, they carryed to shoare all the provision of unspent and unspoyled victuals, all their furniture and tackling of the Ship, leaving nothing but bared ribs, as a pray unto the Ocean.

These Islands of the Bermudos, have ever beene accounted as an inchaunted pile of rockes, and a desert inhabitation for Divels; but all the Fairies of the rocks were but flocks of birds, and all the Divels that haunted the woods, were but heards of swine. Yea and when Acosta in his first booke of the hystories of the Indies, averreth, that though in the continent there were diverse beasts, and cattell, yet in the Islands of Hispaniola, Jamaica, Marguarita, and Dominica, there was not one hoofe, it increaseth the wonder, how our people in the Bermudos found such abundance of Hogs, that for nine moneths space they plentifully sufficed: and yet the number seemed not much diminished. Again, as in the great famine of Israell, God commanded Elias to flie to the brooke Cedron, and there fed him by Ravens; so God provided for our disconsolate people in the midst of the Sea by foules: but with an admirable difference: unto Elias the Ravens brought meat, unto our men the foules brought (themselves) for meate: for when they whisteled, or made any strange noyse, the foules would come and sit on their shoulders, they would suffer themselves to be taken and weighed by our men, who would make choise of the fattest and fairest, and let flie the leane and lightest. An accident, I take it, that cannot be paralleld by any Hystorie, except when God sent abundance of Quayles to feed his Israel in the barren wildernesse. Lastly they found the berries of Cedar, the Palmeto tree, the prickle peare, sufficient fish, plentie of Tortoises, and divers other kinds, which sufficed to sustaine nature. They found diversity of woods, which ministred materials for the building of two Pinaces, acoording to the direction of the three provident Governours.

Consider all these things together. At the instant of neede, they descryed land, halfe an hower more, had buried their memorial in the Sea. If they had fel by night, what expectation of light, from an uninhabited desart? They fell betwixt a laberinth of rockes, which they conceive are mouldred into the Sea, by thunder and lightning. This was not Ariadnes threed, but the direct line of Gods providence. If it had not beene so neere land, their companie or provision had perished by water: if they had not found Hogs, and foule, and fish, they had perished by famine: if there had not beene fuell, they had perished by want of fire: if there had not beene timber they could not have transported themselves to Virginia, but must have beene forgotten forever. Nimium timet qui Deo non credit, he is too impiously fearfull, that will not trust in God so powerfull.

What is there in all this tragicall Comædie that should discourage us with impossibilitie of the enterprise? when of all the Fleete, one onely Ship, by a secret leake was indangered, and yet in the gulfe of Despair, was so graciously preserved. Quæ videtur pæna, est medicina, that which we accompt a punishment of evill, is but a medicine against evill.

After nine Moneths aboade in these Islands, on the 10th of May 1610. they imbarqued themselves in their two new built Pinaces, and after some eleven daies saile, they arrived neere point Comfort upon the coast of Virginia: where they had intelligence of so wofull miserie, as if God had onely preserved them, to communicate in an new extremitie.

From which calamitie, the other arguments of impossibilitie are framed; for if the Countrie bee barren, or the scituation contagious; as famine, and sicknesse, destroy our Nation: wee strive against the streame of reason, and make ourselves the subjects of scorne and derision. Therefore in this maine point of consequence, I will propound this plaine and simple methode; First to demonstrate that there is, and may be in Virginia a sufficient meanes (in all abundance) to sustaine the life of man; Next that the Climate is wholesome and temperate, agreeing with the constitutions of our men; Thirdly, that those extremities proceeded from accidentall and not inherent evils. Lastly, I will delineate the state of the Colony, as Sir Thomas Gates left it under the government of the honorable L. Laware: whereby it shall appeare, that all difficulties are amended, and that the State of that Countrie is sufficiently managed.

To begin, with the staffe of bread. It is avowed unto mee, in writing, in the words of the Author, that hath been there as followeth. Corne. They use to put their wheat into the ground, five cornes in one spit of earth, and two beanes with them: which wheat cornes multiplying into divers stalks, grow up twelve, or fourteen foote high: yeelding some foure, five, or six eares, on every stalke; and in every eare, some five hundred, some six hundred, some seaven hundred cornes: the two beanes, runne upon the stalkes of the wheat, as our garden pease upon stickes, which multiplie to a wonderous increase. I cannot let slip a great secret, (saith the Author) whereof I will avouch no more, then with my hands and eyes I have handled and seene, and whereof to my great comfort, I have often tasted: The wheate beeing sowen thicke, some stalkes beare eares of corne, and some (like siences in trees) beare none: but in those barren stalkes, ther is as much juice as in some sugar cane, of so delicate a tast, as no fruit in England, is comparable to it; out of which Sir Ralph Lane conceived, that wee may extract sugar, in great quantity. But Sir Thomas Gates affirmeth that our men doe make cordiall drinke thereof, to their great comfort.

Pease. Fruits. Hearbs. Besides, the naturall Pease of the Countrie returne an increase innumerable, our garden fruits, both roots, hearbes, and flowers, doe spring up speedily, all things committed to the earth, do multiply with an incredible usurie.

Beasts. The Beasts of the Countrie, as Deere, red, and fallow, do answere in multitude (people for people considered) to our proportion of Oxen, which appeareth by these experiences. First the people of the Countrie are apparelled in the skinnes of these beasts; Next, hard by the fort, two hundred in one heard have been usually observed: Further, our men have seene 4000. of these skins pyled up in one wardroabe of Powhaton; Lastly, infinite store have been presented to Captaine Newport upon sundry occurrents: such a plentie of Cattell, as all the Spaniards found not in the whole kingdome of Mexico, when all their presents were but hennes, and ginycocks, and the bread of Maize, and Cently.

There are Arocouns, and Apossouns, in shape like to pigges, shrowded in hollow roots of trees; There are Hares and Conies, and other beasts proper to the Countrie in plentifull manner.

Our transported Cattell, as Horses, Kine, Hogs, and Goats, do thrive most happily: which is confirmed by a double experiment; one, of Sir Ralph Lane, who brought Kine from the West Indian Island; the other of our Colony, who need take no other care of them, but least they should straie too farre, or be stolne from them. The Turkyes of that Countrie are great, and fat, and exceeding in plentie. Wild-foule. The rivers from August, or September, till February, are covered with flocks of Wildfoule: as swannes, geese, ducke, mallard, teal, wigeons, hearons, bitters, curlewes, godwights, plovers, snights, dottrels, cormerants, (to use the words of Sir Thomas Gates) in such abundance as are not in all the world to be equalled.

Fruits. The Fruits: as apples, running on the ground, in bignesse and shape of a small lemmon, in colour and tast like to a preserved Apricock: grapes and walnuts innumerable; the vines being as common as brambles, the walnut trees as the elmes in England. What should I speake of cucumbers, muske melons, pompions, potatoes, parsneps, carrets, turnups, which our gardens yeelded with little art and labour. God in this place is ever concurring with his gracious influence, if man strangle not his blessings, with carelesse negligence. It shall suffice to conclude in the words and phrase of that noble Governour, the Lo. Laware, as it is warrented to mee by the copie of his Letters sent to the Virginia Councell.

Howsoever, men have belyed both it and themselves, heretofore, yet let no rumor of the Countrie (as if in the wombe thereof lay not these elementall seedes of plenty and increase) wave any mans faire purposes, or wrest them to a declyning and falling off from the businesse.

Temperature. For the healthinesse and temperatenesse of the Clymate, agreeing to our constitutions, much neede not be related, since in all the former written Treatises, it is expressly observed.

No man ought to judge of any Countrie by the fennes and marshes (such as is the place where James towne standeth) except we will condemne all England, for the Wildes and Hundreds of Kent and Essex. In our particular, wee have an infallible proofe of the temper of the Countrie: for of an hundred and odd, which were seated at the Falles, under the government of Captaine Francis West, and of an hundred to the Sea-Ward on the South side of the river, (in the Countrie of Nansemunds) under the charge of Captaine John Martin; of all these two hundred, there did not so much as one man miscarrie: when in James Towne, at the same time, and in the same moneths, 100. sickened, and halfe the number died.

The like experiment was long since in the regiment of Sir Raph Lane, where, in the space of one whole yeare, not two of one hundred perished. Adde unto this the discourse of philosophie; when in that Countrie flesh will receive salt, and continue unputrified (which it will not in the West Indies) when the most delicate of all flowers, grow there as familiarly, as in the fields of Portingale, where the woods are replenished with more sweet barks, and odors, then they are in the pleasantest places of Florida. How is it possible that such a virgin and temperat aire, should work such contrarie effects, but because our fort (that lyeth as a semy-Iland) is most part invironed with an ebbing and flowing of salt water, the owze of which sendeth forth an unwholesome & contagious vapour? To close up this part with Sir Thomas Gates his experiment: he professeth, that in a fortnights space he recovered the health of most of them by moderat labour, whose sicknesse was bred in them by intemperate idlenes.

If any man shall accuse these reports of partiall falshood, supposing them to be but Utopian, and legendarie fables, because he cannot conceive, that plentie and famine, a temperate climate, and distempered bodies, felicities, and miseries can be reconciled together, let him now reade with judgement, but let him not judge before he hath read.

The ground of all those miseries, was the permissive providence of God, who, in the fore-mentioned violent storme, seperated the head from the bodie, all the vitall powers of regiment being exiled with Sir Thomas Gates in those infortunate (yet fortunate) Ilands. The broken remainder of those supplies made a greater shipwrack in the continent of Virginia, by the tempest of dissention: every man overvaluing his own worth, would be a Commander: every man underprising an others value, denied to be commanded. The emulation of Cæsar and Pompey, watered the plains of Pharsaly with bloud, and distracted the sinewes of the Romane Monarchy. The dissentions of the three besieged Captains betraied the Citie of Hierusalem to Vespasian: how much more easily might ambitious discord teare in peeces an infant Colony, where no eminent and respected magistrats had authoritie to punish presumptuous disobedience. Tacitus hath observed, that when Nero sent his old trained souldiers to Tarantum and Autium, (but without their old Captains and Centurians) that they rather made a number, then a Colony: every souldier secretly glided into some neighbour Province, and forsooke their appointed places: which hatched this consequent mischiefe; the Cities were uninhabited, and the emperour was frustrated: when therefore license, sedition, and furie, are the fruits of a headie, daring, and unruly multitude, it is no wonder that so many in our colony perished: it is a wonder, that all were not devoured. Omnis inordinatus animus sibi ipsi fit pæna, every inordinate soule becomes his owne punishment.

The next fountaine of woes was secure negligence, and improvidence, when every man sharked for his present bootie, but was altogether carelesse of succeeding penurie. Now, I demand whether Sicilia, or Sardinia (sometimes the barnes of Rome) could hope for increase without manuring? A Colony is therefore denominated, because they should be Coloni, the tillers of the earth, and stewards of fertilitie: our muntinous loiterers would not sow with providence, and therefore they reaped the fruits of too deare-bought repentance. An incredible example of their idlenes, is the report of Sir Thomas Gates, who affirmeth, that after his first comming thither, he hath seen some of them eat their fish raw, rather than they would go a stones cast to fetch wood and dresse it. Dij laboribus omnia vendunt, God sels us all things for our labour, when Adam himselfe might not live in paridice without dressing the garden.

Unto idlenesse, you may joyne treasons, wrought by those unhallowed creatures that forsooke the Colony, and exposed their desolate brethren to extreame miserie. You shall know that 28. or 30. of the companie, were appointed (in the Ship called the Swallow) to truck for Corne with the Indians, and having obtained a great quantitie by trading, the most seditious of them, conspired together, persuaded some, & enforced others, to this barbarous project. They stole away the Ship, they made a league amongst themselves to be professed pirates, with dreames of mountaines of gold, and happy robberies: thus at one instant, they wronged the hopes, and subverted the cares of the Colony, who depending upon their returne, fore-slowed to looke out for further provision: they created the Indians our implacable enemies by some violence they had offered: they carried away the best Ship (which should have been a refuge, in extremities:) they weakened our forces, by substraction of their armes, and succours. These are that scum of men that fayling in their piracy, that beeing pinched with famine and penurie, after their wilde roving upon the Sea, when all their lawlesse hopes failed, some remained with other pirates, they met upon the Sea, the others resolved to return for England, bound themselves by mutuall oath, to agree all in one report, to discredit the land, to deplore the famyne, and to protest that this their comming awaie, proceeded from desperate necessitie: These are they, that roared out the tragicall historie of the man eating of his dead wife in Virginia; when the master of this Ship willingly confessed before 40 witnesses, that at their comming awaie, they left three moneths victuals, and all the cattell living in the Fort: sometimes they reported that they saw this horrible action, sometimes that Captaine Davies sayd so, sometimes that one Beadle the Lieutenant of Captaine Davies did relate it, varying this report into diversity of false colours, which hold no likenesses and proportion: But to cleare all doubts, Sir Thomas Gates thus relateth the tragedie.

There was one of the companie who mortally hated his wife, and therefore secretly killed her, then cut her in pieces and hid her in divers parts of his house: when the woman was missing, the man suspected, his house searched, and parts of her mangled body were discovered, to excuse himselfe he said that his wife died, that he hid her to satisfie his hunger, and that he fed daily upon her. Upon this, his house was againe searched, where they found a good quantitie of meale, oatemeale, beanes and pease. Hee thereupon was araigned, confessed the murder, and was burned for his horrible villany.

Now shall the scandalous reports of a viperous generation, preponderate the testimonies of so worthie leaders? shall their venemous tongues, blast the reputation of an auncient & worthy Peere, who upon the ocular certainty of future blessings, hath protested in this Letters, that he will sacrifice himselfe for his Countrie in this service, if he may be seconded; and if the company doe give it over he will yet lay all his fortunes upon the prosecution of the plantation? shall sworne lyes, and combined oathes, so far priviledge trechery, and piracy as to rob us of our hopes, & to quell our noble resolutions? God forbid: Qui in mendacio confidit, cito diffidit, a lyers confidence, is but a blazing diffidence.

Unto Treasons, you may joyne covetousnesse in the Mariners, who for their private lucre partly imbezled the provisions, partly prevented our trade with the Indians, making the matches in the night, and forestalling our market in the day: whereby the Virginians were glutted with our trifles, and inhaunced the prices for their Corne and Victuall. That Copper which before would have provided a bushell, would not now obtain so much as a pottle: Non habet eventus sordida præda bonos, the consequent of sordid gaine is untimely wretchednesse.

Joyne unto these an other evill: there is great store of Fish in the river, especially of Sturgeon; but our men provided no more of them, then for present necessitie, not barrelling up any store against that season the Sturgeon returned to the sea. And not to dissemble their folly, they suffered fourteene nets (which was all they had) to rot and spoile, which by orderly drying and mending might have been preserved: but being lost, all help of fishing perished. Quanto maiora timentur dispendia, tanto promptior debet esse cautela, fundamentall losses that cannot be repealed, ought with the greatest caution to be prevented.

The state of the Colony, by these accidents began to find a sensible declying: which Powhatan (as a greedy Vulture) observing, and boyling with desire of revenge, he invited Captaine Ratclife, and about thirty others to trade for Corne, and under the colour of fairest friendship, he brought them within the compasse of his ambush, whereby they were cruelly murthered, and massacred. For upon confidence of his fidelitie, they went one and one into severall houses, which caused their severall destructions, when if but any sixe had remained together, they would have been a bulwarke for the generall preservation. After this, Powhatan in the night cut off some of our boats, he drave away all the Deere into the farther part of the Countrie, hee and his people destroyed our Hogs, (to the number of about sixe hundred) he sent none of his Indians to trade with us, but laied secret ambushes in the woods, that if one or two dropped out of the fort alone, they were indaungered.

Cast up this reckoning together: want of government, store of idlenesse, their expectations frustrated by the Traitors, their market spoyled by the Mariners, our nets broken, the deere chased, our boats lost, our hogs killed, our trade with the Indians forbidden, some of our men fled, some murthered, and most by drinking the brackish water of James fort weakened, and indaungered, famyne and sicknesse by all these meanes increased, here at home the monies came in so slowly, that the Lo. Laware could not be dispatched, till the Colony was worne and spent with difficulties: Above all, having neither Ruler, nor Preacher, they neither feared God nor man, which provoked the wrath of the Lord of Hosts, and pulled downe his judgements upon them. Discite Justitiam moniti. Now, (whether it were that God in mercie to us would weede out these ranke hemlockes; or whether in judgement to them he would scourge their impieties; or whether in wisedome he would trie our patience, Ut magna magnè desideremus, that wee may beg great blessings earnestly) our hope is that our Sunne shall not set in a cloude, since this violent storme is dispersed, since all necessarie things are provided, an absolute and powerfull government is setled, as by this insuing relation shall be described.

When Sir Thomas Gates arrived in Virginia, the strange and unexpected condition wherein he found the Colony, gave him to understand, how never was there more neede of all the powers of judgement, then at this present; it being now his charge, both to save such as he found so forlorne and wretched, as to redeeme himselfe and his from falling into the like calaminties. All which considered, he entred into consultation with Sir George Summers, and Captaine Newport, and the Gentlemen and councell of the former government. They examined first their store, which after two cakes a day to a man, would hold out but sixteene dayes, (it being five moneths betwixt the stealing away of the Swallow, and his landing) the Corne of the Indians but newly sowed, not an eye of Sturgeon, as yet appeared in the river: And therefore at the same consultation it was concluded by a generall approbation, That they should abandon the Countrie, and in the foure Pinaces (which remained in the river) they should make for the New found land, where (it beeing fishing time) they might meete with many English Ships, into which they hoped to disperse the most of the Company.

This conclusion taking effect, upon the seventh of June Sir Thomas Gates (having appointed every ship her complement and number, and delivered likewise to each a proportionable weight of provision) caused every man to repaire aboord; his company (and of his company himselfe) remained last on shore, to keepe the towne from being burned, which some of our owne company maliciously threatned. About noone they fell downe with the tyde to the Iland of Hogges, and the next morning to the Mulbury Iland: at what time, they discovered the long Boate of the Lord Laware, which his Lordship (hearing of this resolution by the Captaine of the Fort, which standeth at the mouth of the river) suddenly dispatched with letters to Sir Thomas Gates, which informed him of his Lordships arrivall. Upon receite of these letters, Sir Thomas Gates bore up the Helme, and that night with a favourable winde relanded all our men at the Fort. Before which, the tenth of June (being Sunday) his Lordship came with all his Fleete, went ashore in the afternoone, heard a Sermon, read his Commission, and entred into consultation for the good of the Colony.

In which secret counsell, I will a little leave his Lordship, that wee may duly observe the revealed counsell of God. He that shal but turne up his eye, and behold the spangled Canopie of heaven, shall but cast down his eye, and consider the imbroidered Carpet of the earth, and withall shall marke, how the heavens heare the earth, the earth heare the corne and oyle, and they relieve the necessities of man, that man wil acknowledge Gods infinite providence. But hee that shall further observe, how God inclineth all casuall events, to worke the necessary helpe of his Saints, must needs adore the Lords infinite goodnesse. Never had any people more just cause to cast themselves at the foot-stoole of God, and to reverence his mercy, then our distressed Colony: for if God had not sent Sir Thomas Gates from the Bermudos within foure daies, they had all beene famished: if God had not directed the heart of that worthy Knight, to save the Fort from fire at their shipping, they had been destitute of a present harbor, and succor; if they had abandoned the Fort any longer time, and had not so soone returned, questionlesse the Indians would have destroied the Fort, which had beene the meanes of our safely among them, and a terrour unto them. If they had set Saile sooner, and had lanched into the vast Ocean, who could have promised, that they should have encountered the Fleet of the Lo. La-ware? especially when they made for New-found land, a course contrary to our Navies approaching. If the Lord La-ware had not brought with him a yeares provision, what comfort could those soules have received, to have beene relanded to a second destruction? Brachium Domini, this was the arme of the Lord of Hosts, who would have his people to passe the redde Sea and Wildernesse, and then to possesse the land of Canaan: It was divinely spoken of heathen Socrates, Si Deus sit solicitus pro te, cur tu tibi sis solicitus? If God for man be carefull, why should man be over distrustfull?

The noble Lord governor, after mature deliberation, delivered some few words to the company, laying just blame upon them for their haughty vanities, and sluggish idlenesse; earnestly entreating them to amend those desperate follies, lest he should be compelled to draw the sword of Justice, and to cut off such delinquents, which he had rather draw (even to the shedding of his vital blood) to protect them from injuries; heartning them with relation of that store hee had brought with him; constituting officers of all conditions to rule over them, allotting every man his particular place to watch vigilantly and worke painefully. This Oration and direction being received with a generall applause, you might shortly behold the idle and restie diseases of a divided multitude, by the unity and authority of this government, to be substantially cured. Those that knew not the way to goodnes before, but cherished singularity and faction, can now chalke out the path of all respective duetie and service: every man endeavouring to out-strip each other in diligence: the French preparing to plant the Vines, the English labouring in the woods and groundes; every man knoweth his charge, and dischargeth the same with alacrity. Neither let any man be discouraged, by the relation of their daily labor, (as though the sappe of their bodies should be spent for other mens profite) the setled times of working (to effect all themselves, or the Adventurers neede desire) requiring no more pains then from sixe of clocke in the morning untill ten, and from two of the clock in the morning till foure: at both which times they are provided of spiritual and corporall reliefe. First, they enter into the Church, and make their prayers unto God; next, they returne to their houses, and receive their proportion of foode. Nor should it be conceived, that this busines excludeth Gentlemen, whose breeding never knew what a daies labour meant; for though they cannot digge, use the square, nor practise the axe and chizell; yet may the stayde spirits of any condition finde how to employ the force of knowledge, the exercise of counsell, the operation and power of their best breeding and qualities. The houses which are built are as warme and defensible against winde and weather, as if they were tiled and slated; being covered above with strong boordes, and matted round within, according to the fashion of the Indians. Our forces are now such as are able to tame the fury and treachery of the Savages: our Forts assure the Inhabitants, and frustrate all assailants. And to leave no discouragement in the heart of any, who personally shall enter into this great action, I will communicate a double comfort: first, Sir George Summers (that worthy Admiral) hath undertaken a dengerous adventure, for the good of the Colony.

Upon the fifteenth of June (accompanied with Captaine Samuel Argoll) he returned in two Pinaces unto the Bermudos; promising (if by any meanes God will open a way to that Iland of Rockes) that he would soone returne with sixe moneths provision of flesh, and with live Hogges to store againe Virginia. It is but eleven daies saile, and we hope that God will send a pillar of fire to direct his journey. The other comfort is, that the Lord governour hath built two new Forts (the one called Fort Henry, and the other Fort Charles, in honor of our most noble Prince and his hopefull brother) upon a pleasant hill, and neere a little rivelet, which we call Southampton river. They stand in a wholsome ayre, having plenty of springs of sweete water; they command a great circuit of ground, containing wood, pasture and meadow; with apt places for vines, corne and gardens. In which Forts it is resolved, that all those that come out of England shall be at their first landing quartered; that the wearisomnes of the sea may bee refreshed in their pleasing part of the countrey.

The fertility of the soile, the temperature of the climate, the form of government, the condition of our people, their daily invocating of the name of God, being thus expressed; Why should the successe (by the rules of mortall judgement) be despaired? Why should not the rich harvest of our hopes be seasonably expected? I dare say, that the resolution of Cæsar in Fraunce, the designes of Alexander in Greece, the discoveries of Hernando Cortes in the West, and of Emanuel, King of Portugale in the East, were not incouraged upon so firme grounds of state and possibility. All which I could demonstrate out of their owne Records, were I not prevented with hast, to satisfie their longings, who with an open eare, hearken after the commodities of the countrey: whose appetites I will no longer frustrate, then their eyes can runne over this succinct Narration.

I called it a succinct Narration, because the commodities in former Treatises have beene largely described, which I will here only epitomise, lest any man should change his resolution, when the same grounds remaine, which were the cause of his former adventure.

The Counsell of Virginia (finding the smalnesse of that returne, which they hoped should have defraied the charge of a new supply) entred into a deepe consultation, and propounded amongst themselves, whether it were fit to enter into a new contribution, or in time to send for home the Lord Laware, and to abandon the action. They resolved to send for sir Thomas Gates, who being come, they adjured him to deale plainely with them, and to make a true relation of those things which wer presently to be had, or hereafter to be hoped for in Virginia. Sir Thomas Gates with a solemne and sacred oath replied, that all things before reported were true: that the country yeeldeth abundance of wood, as Oake, Wainscot, Walnut trees, Bay trees, Ashe, Sarsafrase, live Oake, greene all the yeare, Cedar and Firre; which are the materials, of soape ashes, and pot ashes, of oyles of walnuts, and bayes, of pitch and tarre, of Clap boards, Pipe-staves, Masts and excellent boardes of forty, fifty and sixtie length, and three foote bredth, when one Firre tree is able to make the maine Mast of the greatest ship in England. He avouched, that there are incredible variety of sweet woods, especially of the Balsamum tree, which distilleth a pretious gum; that there are innumerable White Mulberry trees, which in so warme a climate may cherish and feede millions of silke wormes, and returne us in a very short time, as great a plenty of silke as is vented into the whole world from al the parts of Italy: that there are divers sorts of Minerals, especially of Iron oare, lying upon the ground for ten miles circuite; (of which we have made triall at home, that it maketh as good Iron as any is in Europe:) that a kinde of hempe or flax, and silke grasse doe grow there naturally, which will affoord stuffe for all manner of excellent Cordage: that the river swarmeth with Sturgeon; the land aboundeth with Vines, the woodes doe harbor exceeding store of Beavers, Foxes and Squirrils, the waters doe nourish a great encrease of Otters; all which are covered with pretious furres: that there are in present discovered dyes and drugs of sundry qualities; that the Orenges which have beene planted, did prosper in the winter, which is an infallible argument, that Lymmons, sugar Canes, Almonds, Rice, Anniseede, and all other commodities which we have from the Staights, may be supplied to us in our owne countrey, and by our owne industry: that the corne yeeldeth a trebble encrease more then ours; and lastly, that it is one of the goodlieth countries under the sunne; enterveined with five maine Rivers, and promising as rich entrals as any Kingdome of the earth, to whom the sunne is so neerer a neighbour.

What these things will yeelde, the Merchant best knoweth, who findeth by experience, that many hundreth of thousands of pounds are yearly spent in Christendome in these commodities. The Merchant knoweth, that Caveare and Traine which come from Russia, can be brought hither but once in the yeare, in regard of the Ice: and that Sturgeon which is brought from the East countries, can come but twice a yeare; and that not before the end of Aprill, or the beginning of May; which many times in regard of the heat of those moneths, is tainted in the transportation: when from Virginia they may be brought to us in foure and twenty daies, and in al the colde seasons of the yeare. The Merchants know, that the commodity of sope and pote ashes are very scant in Prussia; that they are brought three hundred miles by land, and three hundred miles by rivers, before they come to the Sea; that they pay a custome there, and another in Denmarke, which enhanceth the prices exceedingly: But in Virginia they may have them without carriage by land or custom (because five Navigable Rivers doe lead up five several waies into the bowels of the whole countrey.) As therefore the like Rivers, ae the cause of the riches of Holland, so will these be to us a wondrous cause of saving of expences. The merchant knoweth, that through the troubles in Poland & Muscovy, (whose eternall warres are like the Antipathy of the Dragon & Elephants) all their traffique for Mastes, Deales, Pitch, Tarre, Flax, Hempe, and Cordage, are every day more and more indangered, and the woods of those countries are almost exhausted. All which are to be had in Virginia with farre lesse charge, and farre more safety. Lastly, the Merchant knoweth, that for our commodities in the Staights, as sweet wines, orenges, lemmonds, anniseeds, &c. that we stand at the devotion of politique Princes and States, who for their proper utility, devise all courses to grinde our merchants, all pretences to confiscate their goods, and to draw from us al marrow of gaine by their inquisitive inventions: when in Virginia, a few yeares labour by planting and husbandry, will furnish all our defects, with honour and security; especially since the Frenchmen (who are with the Lord Governour) do confidently promise, that within two yeares we may expect a plentifull Vintage.

When therefore this noble enterprise, by the rules of Religion is expressly justified; when the passages by Sea are all open and discovered; when the climate is so fruitfully tempered; when the naturall riches of the soile are so powerfully confirmed: will any man so much betray his owne inconsiderate ignorance, and bewray his rashnesse; that when the same Sunne shineth, he should not have the same eies to beholde it; when the same hope remaines, he should not have the same heart to apprehend it? At the voyage of Sir Thomas Gates, what swarmes of people desired to be transported? what alacrity and cheerefulnesse in the Adventurers by free wil offerings, to build up this new Tabernacle? Shall we now be dejected? Shall we cast downe our heads like Bull rushes? because one storme at sea hath deferred our joyes and comforts! We are too effeminate in our longings, and too impatient of delaies. Gods al-disposing providence, is not compellable by mans violence: Let any wisedome give a solide reason, why his purpose should be changed, when those grounds which gave life to his first purpose, are not changed. It is but a golden slumber, that dreameth of any humane felicity, which is not sauced with some contingent miserie. Dolor & voluptas, invicem cedunt, Griefe and pleasure are the crosse sailes of the worlds ever-turning-windmill. Let no man therefore be over wise, to cast beyond the moone and to multiplie needlesse doubts and questions. Hannibal by too much wisedome, lost opportunity to have sacked Rome. Charles the eighth of Fraunce, by temporising, lost the Kingdome of Naples, and the governement of Florence: Henry the seventh by too much over-warines, lost the riches of the golden Indies. Occasion is pretious, but when it is occasion. Some of our neighbours would joine in the action, if they might be joynt inheritors in the Plantation; which is an evident proofe, that Virginia shall no sooner be quitted by us, then it will be reinhabited by them. A dishonor of that nature, that will eternally blemish our Nation; as though we were like the furious Pyrrhus, or impetuous Swissers, who in a brunt can conquer any thing, but with wisedome can maintaine nothing. It is time to wipe away such an imputation of Barbarisme, especially since the consequence is so pregnant, that without this or the like, the state cannot subsist without some dangerous and imminent mutation. He is over blinde that doth not see, what an inundation of people doth overflow this little Iland: Shall we vent this deluge, by indirect and unchristian policies? shal we imitate the bloody and heathenish counsell of the Romanes, to leave a Carthage standing, that may exhaust our people by a forraine warre? or shall we nourish domesticall faction, that as in the dayes of Vitellius and Vespasian, the sonne may imbrew his hands in the blood of the father? Or shall we follow the barbarous foot-steps of the state of China, to imprision our people in a little circle of the earth, and consume them by pestilence? Or shall we like the beast of Babylon, denie to any sort the honourable estate of mariage, and allow abhominable stewes, that our people may not over increase in multitude? Or shall we take an inhumane example from the Muscovite, in a time of famine to put tenne thousand of the poore under the yce, as the Mice and Rats of a state politique? If all these be diabolicall and hellish projects, what other meanes remaines to us, but by setling so excellent a Plantation, to disembarke some millions of people upon a land that floweth with all manner of plenty?

To wade a little further, who ever saluted the monuments of antiquity, and doth not finde, that Carthage aspired to be Empresse of the world, by her opportunity of havens and multitude of shipping? What hindereth the great Mahumetane Prince, from seazing upon al the territories of Europe, by onely the want of skilfull marriners? What created the rich and free states of Holland, but their winged Navy? It was a fit embleme that painted death standing upon the shoares of Fraunce, Germany and Spaine, and looking over into England: intymating unto us, that so long as we are Lords of the narrow seas, death stands on the other shoares, and onely can looke upon us: but if our wooden wals were ruinated, death would soone make a bridge to come over, and devoure our Nation. When therefore our mils of Iron, and excesse of building, have already turned our greatest woods into pasture and champion, within these few years; neither the scattered Forrests of England, nor the diminished Groves of Ireland, will supply the defect of our Navy. When in Virginia there is nothing wanting, but onely mens labours, to furnish both Prince, State and merchant, without charge or difficulty. Againe, whither shall wee transport our cloth, and how shall we sustaine our Artisans? Shall we send it into Turkey? Some private and deceitfull avarice hath discredited our merchandize. Into Spaine? it aboundeth with sheepe and wooll. Into Poland and Muscovy? the daunger doth over-ballance the gaine in times of contention. Into Fraunce and Germany? they are for the most part supplied by their owne peace. When if our Colony were peopled in Virginia, mutabit vellera merces, we shall exchange our store of cloth for other merchandize. Let any man resolve why the Councell of Virginia, doe now most earnestly continue their adventures? Why those that were (eye witnesses) of the former supposed miseries, do voluntarily returne with joy and comfort? why those noble and worthy personages, doe offer to make the action good upon the hazard of their lives & fortunes? And why Sir Thomas Gates longeth and hasteneth to go thither again, and the Lord La-ware desireth so earnestly to stay there? Are not all these things as deere to them as to any other of the Adventurers? Have not their hopes the same wings? their feares the same fetters? their estates the same rockes? their lives and soules greater gulfes of perill and despair? And yet neither the imbracements of their wives, nor indulgence to their babes, nor the neglect of their domesticke fortunes, nor banishment from their native soile, nor any experimented dangers have broken their noble resolution.

And therefore, he that desireth to purchase infallible hope of private utility; hee that aimeth at the honor & wealth of his native country; he that esteemeth his owne repute as deere as his owne eies; he that endeavoureth to enlarge the dominions of his Prince, and the Kingdome of his God: let him remember what hee hath already spent, which is all buried; let him consider the consequences of state, which are all vanished into smoake; let him conceive what a scorne we shall be made to the maligners or our state abroad, and our il affected at home; let him mediate, the external riches of other Kingdoms, able to buy and sell the monarch of the west; let him heare the triumphant boasting of the Beast of Rome, as though God would not suffer our schismaticall and hereticall Religion, to be infused into a new converted Region: O all ye worthies, follow the ever-sounding trumpet of a blessed honour; let Religion be the first aim of your hopes, & cætera adijcientur, and other things shall be cast unto you: your names shall be registered to posterity with a glorious title; These are the men, whom God raised to augment the State of their countrey, and to propagate the Gospell of Jesus Christ. Neyther ought any man to live under Augustus, as if he lived under Domitian, quibus inertia est pro sapienta; to whom sluggishnes & privacy is imputed for wisedome and pollicy. The same God that hath joyned three Kingdomes under one Cæsar, wil not be wanting to adde a fourth, if wee would dissolve that frosty Icinesse which chilleth our zeale, and maketh us so cold in the action. But is a meere Idæa, speculation and fancy, to sow sparingly, and yet expect for to reape plentifully; when a penurious supply is like the casting on of a little water upon a great fire, that quencheth not the heat, but augments it: when procrastinating delayes, and lingring counsels, doe lost the opportunity of flying time; whereby we rather bewray our Colony then releeve them: let no man adore his golde as his God, not his Mammon as his Maker. If God have scattered his blessing upon you as snow, will you returne no tributary acknowledgement of his goodnesse? If you will, can you select a more excellent subject, than to cast downe the altars of Divels, that you may raise up the Altar of Christ: to forbid the sacrifice of men, that they may offer up the sacrifice of contrite spirits; to reduce Barbarisme and infidelity, to civill government and Christianity? Si frigido loquor, nihil loquor; If I speake to a man void of piety, I speake but the words of winde and vanity; otherwise how doth that man groane under the worlds corruption, that doth not actually or vocally hasten the worldes conversion? Doubt ye not but God hath determined, and demonstrated (by the wondrous preservation of those principal persons which fell upon the Bermudos) that he will raise our state, and build his Church in that excellent climate, if the action be seconded with resolution and Religion.

Nil disperandum Christo Duce, & Auspice Christo.