First Hand Accounts

"A Trewe Relacyon"

To the right honourable the Lorde Percy

My Lorde

This Relacyon I have here sente your Lordshipp is for Towe respectts. The one to Sheowe how mutche I honnor you and desyre to doe you service. The other in Regard thatt many untrewthes concerneinge Theis proceedeinges have bene formerly published wherein The Auther hathe nott Spared to Apropriate many desertts to himselfe wch he never Pformed and stuffed his Relacyons wth so many falseties and malicyous detractyons nott onely of this Pte and Tyme wch I have selected to Treate of Butt of former ocurrentes Also So thatt I coulde nott conteine my selfe butt expresse the Trewthe unto your Lordshipp concerninge Theis Affayers. And all wch I ayme att is to manyfeste my selfe in all my Actyons bothe nowe and Always To be

Your Lordshipps humble and

faithfull Servante

G. P.

A Trewe Relacyon of the Pcedeinges and Ocurrentes of Momente wch have hapned in Virginia from the Tyme Sr Thomas GATES was shippwrackte uppon the BERMUDES ano 1609 untill my depture outt of the Country wch was in ano Dñi 1612

If we Trewley Consider the diversety of miseries mutenies and famishmentts wch have Attended upon discoveries and plantacyons in theis our moderne Tymes we shall nott fynde our plantacyon in Virginia to have Suffered Aloane.

Ladoniere had his share thereof in FLORIDA nextt neighbour unto VIRGINIA where his sowldiers did fall into mutenies and in the ende weare allmoste All Starved for wante of foode.

The Spanyards plantacyon in the River of plate and the streightes of MAGELANE Suffered also in soe mutche thatt haveinge eaten upp all their horses to susteine themselves wthall, mutenies did Aryse and growe Amongste them for the wch the generall DIEGO MENDOSA cawsed some of them to be executed Extremety of hunger in forceinge other secrettly in the night to cutt downe Their deade fellowes from of the gallowes and bury them in their hungry Bowelles.

The plantacyon in CARTHAGENA was also Lamentable thatt wante of wholesome foode where wth for to mainteyne Lyfe weare inforced to eat Toades snakes and sutche lyke venemous wormes sutche is the sharpnes of hunger.

To this purpose many other examples mighte be recyted butt the relacyon itt selfe beinge briefe I have noe intente to be Tedyous butt to delyver the Trewthe briefly and plainly the wch I doutt nott butt will rather Lyke then Loathe the Reader nor doe I purpose to use any elloquentt style or phrase the wch indede in me is wanteinge Butt to delyver thatt trewly wch myself and many others have had bitter experyense of: Many other woes and miseries have hapned unto our Collonie in VIRGINIA bothe before and Since thatt Tyme wch now I doe intende to Treate of Haveinge selected this pte from the reste for towe Respecttes first in regard I was moste frequente and acquaynted wth theis Pcedeinges being moste pte of the tyme presydent and governour next in respect the leaste pte hereof hathe not bene formerly published. In the yere of our Lorde 1609 Sr Tho: GATES and Sr George SOMERS acompanyed wth dyvers gentlemen sowldiers and seamen in nyne good Shippes did beginne their voyage for VIRGINIA the towe Knightes beinge in the Admirall whereof Christopher NEWPORT was Captayne And haveinge sayled wth Psperous wyndes many Leauges at lenghte did fall upon the BERMUDES where meteinge wth A vyoelentt storme the Admirall wherein the towe Knightes were inbarqued suffred wracke nevertheless hoyseinge outt their boate safely Landed the 2 knightes and the Reste of thatt Company upon the BERMUDES of whome I will forbeare to Treate of further untill their Arryvall in Virginia.

The other 8 shippes shorttly after Aryved in Virginia where the passengers beinge noe soener well landed butt presently A discencyon did growe betwine them and Capte: SMITHE then presydentt, but after some debate all was quyeted and pacifyed yett Capte: SMITHE feareinge the worste and thatt the seamen and thatt factyon mighte growe too stronge and be a meanes to depose him of his govermentt so Jugled wth them by the way of feasteinges Expense of mutche powder and other unnecessary Tryumphes That mutche was Spente to noe other purpose butt to Insinewate wth his Reconcyled enemyes and for his owne vayne glory for the wch we all after suffred. And thatt wch was intollerable did give Leave unto the Seamen to carry away whatt victewalls and other necessaryes they wolde doeinge the same more safly inn regard the contentts thereof was in the Admirall wch was caste away.

Nott long after Capte: SMITHE sentt Capt: MARTIN and my selfe wth threskore people to goe for NANSEMUNDE Capte: MARTINS Leftenantt leadinge moste of the men overland and we towe wth the Reste followed them by water where beinge Aryved we inquyred of the Indyans of our men butt they acordinge to their subtelltyes wold not acquaynte us therewth whereupon I requested Capte: MARTIN thatt I mightt goe Ashoare to discover the trewthe to the wch he wolde nott condiscende Neverthelesse the nighte beinge stormy and wette I wente on Lande wth my Company where I fownde our men by goode fyres in Saffety whereof I advertyzed Capte: MARTIN the nextt morneinge who presently wth his company did come Ashoare unto us where after some consultacyon helde we sentte 2 messengers to the kinge of ------------- MANCEMONDE To Barter wth him for an Island righte opposite ageinste the mayne we weare uppon for CopP hatches and other comodeties. Butt our messengers stayeinge Longer then we expected we feared thatt wch after hapned. So Capte: MARTIN did Apointe wth halfe of our men to take the Island Pforce And beinge upon the way we espyed A Canoe wherein we weare Pswaded our messengers to be butt they Pceaveinge us retourned backe from whense they came And we never sett eye upon our Messengers after. Butt understood from the Indyans themselves thatt they weare sacrifysed And thatt their Braynes weare cutt and skraped outt of their heades wth mussell shelles beinge Landed and acquaynted wth their Trechery we Beate the Salvages outt of the Island burned their howses Ransaked their Temples Tooke downe the Corpes of their deade kings from of their Toambes And caryed away their pearles CopP and braceletts, wherewth they doe decore their kings funeralles.

In the meane Tyme Salvages upon the Mayne did fall into discencyon wth Capte: MARTIN who seised the kings sonne and one other Indyand and broughte them bownde unto the Island where I was when a shipp Boye takeinge upp a Pistoll accidentyallie nott meaneinge any harme The pistoll suddenly fyered and shotte the Salvage prisoner into the Breste. And thereupon whatt wth his passyon and feare he broake the Cordes Asunder where wth he was tyed and did swimme over unto the mayne wth his wound bleedinge And there beinge great store of maize upon the Mayne I cowncelled Capteyne MARTIN to take possesyon thereof the wch he Refused pretendinge thatt he wolde nott putt his men into hassard and danger. So haveinge seene Capte: MARTIN well settled I Retourned wth Capte NELLSON to JAMES TOWNE ageine Acordinge to apoyntementte.

Shorttly after Capte: SMITHE sente Capteyne Francis WEST wth one hundrethe and fortye men upp to the falles wth sixe monthes victewells to inhabitt there. Where beinge Reasonable well settled dyvs of his men stragled from their foarte. some of them comeinge hoame wownded. others never returned to bringe any Tydeings butt weare cutt of and slayne by the salvages. So thatt in small Pcesse of Tyme Capteyne SMITHE did take his iorney upp to the falles to understand how things weare there ordered when presently after his comeinge thether A greate devisyon did growe amongste them Capte: SMITHE Pceaveinge bothe his authorety and Pson neglected incensed and Animated the Salvages agenste Capte: WEST and his company Reporteinge unto them thatt our men had noe more powder lefte them then wolde serve for one volley of shott And so Capte: SMITHE Retouringe to JAMES TOWNE ageine fownd to have too mutche powder aboutt him The wch beinge in his pockett where the sparke of A Matche Lighted very shrewdly burned him. And comeinge in thatt case to JAMES TOWNE Capte RATTLIEFE ARCHER and MARTIN practysed ageinste him and deposed him of his governmentt SMITHE beinge an Ambityous unworthy and vaynglorious fellowe Attempteinge to take all Mens Authoreties from them for bothe RATLIEFE ARCHER and MARTIN being formerly of the Cowncell SMITHE wolde Rule all and ingrose all authorety into his owne hands Althoughe indede there was noe other certeine apointed govermentt then Sir Tho: GATES had commissyon for who was then in the BERMUDES onely a yerely presidenttshipp to governe by the advyse of the Cowncell. Butt SMITHE ayweinge att A soveraigne Rule wthoutt the Assistance of the cowncell was iustely depryved of all.

The place of govermentt beinge voyde the thre busy instrumentts in the plantacyon Pfered the same unto me the wch att firste I refused in Regard of my Sicknes. Butt by their inportunetie Pmiseinge to undergoe the Chefeste offices and Burthen of govermentt for me untill I weare Recovered att lenghte I accepted thereof and then was SMITHE presently sentt for England.

After I had been presydentt some fowertene dayes I sentt Capte: Rattliefe to pointe Comforte for to Buylde A foarte there. The wch I did for towe Respectts The one for the plenty of the place for fisheinge The other for the comodious discovery of any shippeinge wch sholde come uppon the Coaste And for the honnor of Your Lordshpps name and howse I named the same ALGERNOWNS Foarte.

Nott Longe after Capte: MARTIN whome I lefte att the Island did come to James towne pretendinge some occasions of busyness, but indede his owne saffety moved him thereunto feareinge to be surprysed by the Indyans, who had made dyver excursions againste him, so thatt haveinge lefte Lieftenantt SICKLEMORE to Comawnd in his absence Amongste whose company shorttly after did growe A dangerous mutenie in so mutche Thatt dyvrs of his men to the number of seaventene did take Away A Boate from him Pforce and wente therein to KEKOWHATON pretendinge they wolde trade therefore victwells, Butt they were served acordinge to their desertts for nott any of them weare heard of after And in all lykelyhood weare Cutt of and slayne by the Salvages and wthin fewe dayes after Lieftenantt SICKLEMORE and dyvrs others weare fownd also slayne wth their mowthes stopped full of Breade beinge donn as it seamethe in Contempte and skorne thatt others mighte expecte the Lyke when they shold come to seeke for breade and reliefe amongste them.

BALDIVIA A Spanishe Generall beinge served somewhatt Answerable hereunto in CHILY in the WESTE INDIES who beinge Surprised by the Indyans inforced him to drincke upp A certeine quantety of melted gowlde useinge theis words unto him now glutt thy selfe wth gowlde BALDIVIA haveinge there sowghte for gowlde as SICKLEMORE did here for foode. And all the reste of SICKLEMORS Company wch weare liveinge Retourned to us to JAMES towne to feede upon the poore store we had lefte us.

Also wthin a shorte Tyme after Capte: WESTE did come downe to us from the Falles haveinge loste eleaven men and A Boate att ARSETOCKE besydes those men he loste att the Falles so our Number at James Towne increasinge and our store decreaseinge for in charety we cold nott deny them to participate wth us Whereupon I apointed Capte: TUCKER to Calculate and Caste upp our store. The wch att a poore alowanse of halfe a Cann of meale for A man A day Amownted unto thre monthes Pvissyon yett Capte: TUCKER by his industry and care caused the same to howlde outt fowere monthes. Butt haveinge noe expectacyon of Reliefe to come in so short A Tyme I sentt Capteyne RATLIEFE to POWHATAN to Pcure victewalls and corne by the way of comerce and trade the wch the subtell owlde foxe att firste made good semblanse of Althoughe his intente was otherwayes onely wayteinge A fitteinge tyme for their destruction As after planely appered. The wch was Pbly ocasyoned by Capte: RATLIEFES creduletie for Haveinge POWHATANS sonne and dowghter Aboard his pinesse freely suffred them to depte ageine on shoare whome if he had deteyned mighte have bene A Sufficyentt pledge for his saffety And after nott kepeinge A Pper and fitteinge Courte of Guarde butt suffreinge his men by towe and thre and small Numbers in A Company to straggle into the Salvages howses when the Slye owlde kinge espyed A fitteinge Tyme Cutt them all of onely surprysed Capte: RATLIEFE Alyve who he caused to be bownd unto a tree naked wth a fyer before And by woemen his fleshe was skraped from his bones wth mussell shelles and befre his face throwne into the fyre. And so for want of circumspection miserably Pished.

In the Meane Tyme Capte: William PHETIPLACE Remayned in the pinesse wth Some fewe men and was dyvrs tymes assawlted by the Indyans butt after dyvs conflicts wth the losse of some of his men hardly escaped and att lenghte Aryved att James Towne onely wth sixtene men the Remaynder of fifty Capte RATLIEFE hathe Charge of at his goeinge forthe And so he related unto us the Tragedie of Capte: RATLIEFE nott bringeinge any Reliefe wth them either for themselves or us.

Upon wch defeate I sentt Capte: James DAVIS to ALGERNOWE foarte to Comawnd there in Capte: RATLIEFES place And Capte WESTE I sentt To POTOAMACK wth aboutt thirty sixe men to trade for maize and grayne where he in short tyme Loaded his pinesse sufficyently yett used some harshe and Crewell dealinge by cutteinge of towe of the Salvages heads and other extremetyes And comeinge by ALGERNOWNS foarte Capteine DAVIS did call unto them acquainteinge them wth our Greate wants exhortinge them to make all the Spede they cowlde to Releve us upon wch reporte Capte: WESTE by the Pswasion or rather by the inforcement of his company hoysed upp Sayles and shaped their course directly for England and lefte us in thatt extreme misery and wante.

Now all of us att James Towne beginneinge to feele that sharpe pricke of hunger wch noe man trewly descrybe butt he wch hath Tasted the bitternesse thereof A worlde of miseries ensewed as the Sequell will expresse unto you in so mutche thatt some to satisfye their hunger have robbed the store for the wch I caused them to be executed. Then haveinge fedd uponn horses and other beastes as long as they Lasted we weare gladd to make shifte wth vermine as doggs Catts Ratts and myce All was fishe thatt came to Nett to satisfye Crewell hunger as to eate Bootes shoes or any other leather some colde Come by And those being Spente and devoured some weare inforced to searche the woodes and to feede upon Serpents and snakes and to digge the earthe for wylde and unknowne Rootes where many of our men weare Cutt off of and slayne by the Salvages. And now famin begineinge to Looke gastely and pale in every face thatt notheinge was spared to mainteyne Lyfe and to doe those things wch seame incredible As to digge up dead corpses outt of graves and to eate them and some have Licked upp the Bloode wch hathe fallen from their weake fellowes And amongste the reste this was moste Lamentable Thatt one of our Colline murdered his wyfe Ripped the childe outt of her woambe and threw itt into the River and after chopped the Mother in pieces and salted her for his foode The same not beinge discovered before he had eaten Pte thereof for the wch crewell and inhumane factt I aiudged him to be executed the acknowledgmt of the dede beinge inforced from him by torture haveinge hunge by the Thumbes wth weightes att his feete a quarter of an howere before he wolde confesse the same.

Upon theis Calameties haveinge one boate and A Canoe Lefte us. Our Boate did accidentyally breake Loose and did dryve fower myles downe the River before she was espyed. Whereupon Capte: MARTIN Apointeinge some to followe her the wch beinge neglected and acquaynteinge me there wth I stepped outt of my howse wth my Sworde drawne and what wth my threates & their feares happy was he colde shipp himselfe into the Canoe firste And so our Boate thatt nighte was ageine Recovered yett wanteinge more Boates for fisheinge and other nedfull ocassions Capte: DANIELL TUCKER by his greate industry and paines buylded A Large Boate wth his owne hands The wch was some helpe and A little Reliefe unto us And did kepe us from killinge one of An other. To eate many our men this starveinge Tyme did Runn Away unto the Salvages whome we never heard of after.

By this Tyme being Reasonable well recovered of my sicknes I did undertake A Jorney unto ALGERNOWNS foarte bothe to understand how things weare there ordered as also to have bene Revenged of the Salvages att KEKOWHATAN who had trecheously slayne dyvrs of our men. Our people I fownd in good case and well lykeinge haveinge concealed their plenty from us above att James Towne Beinge so well stored thatt the Crabb fishes where wth they had fede their hoggs wold have bene a greate relefe unto us and saved many of our Lykves But their intente was for to have kept some of the better sorte Alyve and wth their towe pinnesses to have Retourned for England nott Regardinge our miseries and wantts at all where wth I taxed Capte: DAVIS And tolde him thatt I had A full intente to bringe halfe of our men from James Towne to be there Releved And after to Retourne them backe ageine and bringe the reste to bee susteyned there Also And if all this wolde nott serve to save our mens Lyves I purposed to bringe them all unto ALGERNOWNS foarte Tellinge Capte: DAVIS that Another towne or foarte mighte be erected and buylded butt mens lyves onse Loste colde never be recovered.

Our miseries now beinge att the hygheste and intendinge as I formerly Related unto you to Remove some of our men to ALGERNOWNS foarte the very nexte Tyde we espyed towe pinnesses comeinge into the Baye nott knoweinge as yett whatt they weare butt kepinge A Courte of Guard and watche all That nighte The nexte Morneinge we espyed A Boate comeinge of from one of the pinnesses So standinge upon our guard we hales them and understood thatt Sr Tho: GATES and Sr GEORGE SOMERS weare come in those pinnesses wch by their greate industry they had buylded in the BERMUDES wth the remaynder of their wrackt shipp and other woode they fownde in the cowntry upon wch newes we Receved no small ioye Requesteinge them in the Boate to come A shoare the wch they refused. And Retourned Aboard ageine for Sr Tho: GATES haveinge noe knowledge of any foarte to be Builded there was dowtfull whether we weare frends or noe butt beinge possessed of the trewthe he and Sr George SOMERS wch dyvers others did come A shoare att ALGERNOWNES foarte And the nextt Tyde wente upp to James Towne where they mighte Reade A lecture of miserie in our peoples faces and Pceve the skarsety of victewalles And understande the mallice of the Salvages who knoweinge our weaknes had dyvrs Tymes assawlted us wthoutt the foarte Fyndeinge of fyve hundrethe men we had onely lefte Aboutt sixty. The reste beinge either sterved throwe famin or cutt of by the Salvages And those wch weare Liveinge weare so maugre and Leane thatt itt was Lamentable to behowlde them for many throwe extreme hunger have Runne outt of their naked bedds beinge so Leane thatt they Looked Lyke Anotamies Cryeinge owtt we are starved We are starved others goeinge to bedd as we imagined in healthe weare fownd deade the nexte morneinge And amongste the Reste one thinge hapned wch was very remarkable wherein god sheowd his iuste Judgment for one Hughe PRYSE being pinched wth extreme famin In A furious distracted moode did come openly into the markett place Blaspheameinge exclameinge and cryeinge owtt thatt there was noe god. Alledgeinge that if there were A god he wolde nott suffer his creatures whom he had made and framed to indure those miseries And to Pishe for wante of foods and sustenance Butt itt appeared the same day that the Almighty was displeased wth him for goeinge thatt afternoone wth A Butcher A corpulentt fatt man into the woods to seke for some Reliefe bothe of them weare slaine by Salvages. And after beinge fownde gods Indignacyon was showed upon PRYSES Corpes wch was Rente in pieces wth wolves or other wylde Beasts And his Bowles Torne outt of his boddy beinge A Leane spare man And the fatt Butcher nott lyeinge Above sixe yardes from him was fownd altogether untouched onely by the Salvages Arrowes whereby he Receiaved his deathe

Theis miseries considered itt was Resolved uppon By Sr Tho: GATES and the whole Collonie wth all Spede to Retourne for England whereupon moste of our men weare sett to worke some to make pitche And Tar for Trimminge of our shippes others to Bake breade and fewe or noene not imployed in one ocassyon or another. So thatt A Small Space of Tyme fower pinnesses weare fitted and made Reddy. All prepareinge to goe Aboarde. and if Sr Tho: GATES had nott Laboured wth our men they had sett the Towne on fyer useinge theis or the lyke words unto them, my Masters lett the towne Stande we knowe nott butt thatt as honneste men as our selves may come and inhabitt here Then all of us embarqueinge our selves Sr Tho: GATES in the deliveranse wth his company Sr George SOMERS in the patyence my selfe in the discoverie and Capt. DAVIS in the Virginia. All of us sayleinge downe the River wth A full intente to have Pceded upon our voyage for England when Suddenlye we espyed A boate makeinge towards us wherein we fownde to be Capte: BRUSTER sent from my Lorde La WARE who was come unto us wth many gentlemen of quallety And thre hundrethe men besydes greate store of victewles municyon and other Pvissyon whereupon we all Retourned to James Towne ageine where my Lorde shortly after Landed and sett all things in good order selecteinge A Cowncell and makeinge Capteines over fifty men A piece. Then Sr Tho: GATES beinge desyreous for to be Revendged upon the Indyans att KEKOWHATAN did goe thither by water wth a certeine number of men and amongste the reste A Taborer wth him beinge Landed he cawsed the Taborer to play and dawnse thereby to Allure the Indyans to come unto him the wch prevayled. And then espyeinge A fitteinge oportunety fell in upon them putt fyve to the sworde wownded many others some of them beinge after fownde in the woods wth Sutche extreordinary Lardge and mortall wownds thatt itt seamed strange they Cold flye so far. The reste of the Salvages he putt to flighte. And so posseseinge himselfe of the Towne and the fertill ground there unto Adiacentt haveinge well ordered all things he lefte his lieftenantt EARELY to comawnd his company And then Retourned to James Towne, ageine and shorttly after did take his voyadge for England. My Lord Generall aboutt this Tyme sentt Capteine HOWLDCROFTE to buydle A foarte in the woods neare unto KEKOWHATAN. The wch beinge finished my Lord named the same CHARLES foarte in honour of our Kings Matie that now is.

Also my Lorde sentt Sr George SOMERS and Capte: ARGOLL in towe shippes into the BERMUDES to make Pvissyon of hoggs and fishe for us Sr George aryved there where Shorttly after he dyed his men makeinge good Pfitt of Amber griese and other comodeties Retourned for England. Butt Capte: ARGOLL fayleinge of the place fell to the North ward where he hapned upon some fishe there wch haveinge salted and dryed Retourned there wth to us to James Towne ageine

Sr Ferdinando WAYMAN aboutt this Tyme dyed whose deathe was mutche Lamented beinge bothe An honeste and valyantt gentleman.

My Lord Generall not forgetteinge oulde POWHATANS subtell Trecherie sentt A Messenger unto him to demawnde certeine armes and dyvrs men wch we supposed mighte be liveinge in his cowntry Butt he Retourned noe other then prowde and disdaynefull Answers.

Whereupon my Lorde being mutche incensed Cawsed A Comission to be drawne wherein he apointed me Chiefe Comawnder over Seaventie men and sentt me to take Revendge upon the PASPAHEANS and CHICONAMIANS and so Shippeinge my selfe and my sowldiers in towe boates I depted from James Towne the 9th of August 1610 And the same nighte Landed Wthin thre myles of PASPAHAS towne Then draweinge my sowldiers into Battalio placeinge a Capteyne or Leftenante att every fyle we marched towards the Towne haveinge An Indyan guyde wth me named KEMPES whome the Pvoste marshall ledd in A hande locke. This Subtell Salvage was leadinge us outt of the waye the wch I misdowteinge Bastinaded him wch my Truncheon and threatned to cutt of his heade whereupon the slave alltered his Cowrse and browghte us the righte way near unto the towne So that then I Comawnded ever Leader to drawe A way his fyle before me to besett the salvages houses thatt noene mighte escape wth a chardge nott to geve the allarume untill I weare come upp unto them wth the Cullers. At my comeinge I appointed Capte: WILLIAM WESTE to geve the Allarume the wch he Pformed by shooteinge of a psitoll. And then we fell in upon them putt some fiftene or sixtene to the Sworde and Almoste all the reste to flyghte Whereupon I cawsed my drume to beate and drewe all my Sowldiers to the Cullers My Lieftenantt bringeinge wth him the Quene and her Children and one Indyann prisoners for the wch I taxed him becawse he had Spared them his Answer was thatt haveinge them now in my Custodie I mighte doe wth them whatt I pleased. Upon the same I cawsed the Indians heade to be cutt of. And then disPsed my fyles Apointeinge my Sowldiers to burne their howses and to cutt downe their Corne groweinge aboutt the Towne, And after we marched wth the quene And her Children to our Boates ageinge, where beinge noe soener well shipped my sowldiers did begin to murmur becawse the quene and her Children weare spared. So upon the same A Cowncell beinge called itt was Agreed upon to putt the Children to deathe the wch was effected by Throweinge them overboard and shoteinge owtt their Braynes in the water yett for all this Crewellty the Sowldiers weare nott well pleased And I had mutche to doe To save the quenes lyfe for thatt Tyme.

Then sayleinge some towe myles downe the River I sentt Capte: DAVIS A shoare wth Moste of my Sowldiers my Selfe beinge wearyed before and for my owne Pte butt an easie foote man Capte DAVIS att his landeinge was Apponted by some Indyans who spared nott to send their Arrowes amongste our men but wthin A shorte Tyme he putt them to flighte and landed wthoutt further opposityon marcheinge Aboutt fowrtene myles into the Cowntry cutt downe their Corne burned their howses Temples and Idolles and amongste the reste A Spacyous Temple cleane and neattly keptt A thinge strange and seldome sene amongste the Indyans in those Ptes So haveinge Pformed all the spoyle he cowlde Retourned Aboarde to me ageine and then we sayled downe the River to James Towne.

My Lord Generall not beinge well did lye A Shippboard to whome we Rowed he being ioyfull of our Safe Retourne yett Seamed to be discontente becawse the quene was spared as Capteyen DAVIS towlde me and thatt itt was my Lords pleasure thatt we sholde see her dispatched The way he thowghte beste to Burne her. To the first I replyed thatt haveinge seene so mutche Bloodshedd thatt day now in my Cowldbloode I desyred to see noe more and for to Burne her I did not howlde itt fitteinge butt either by shott or Sworde to geve her A quicker dispatche So Turninge my selfe from Capte DAVIS he did take the quene wth towe sowldiers A shoare and in the woods putt her to the Sworde and althoughe Capte: DAVIS towlde me itt was my Lords direction yett I ame Pswaded to the contrary.

Nott longe after our Retourne to James Towne Capte: ARGOLL was sentt wth the lyke Commission ageinste the WARISCOYANS. The Salvages beinge warned by their neighbours harmes weare very vigilante and Carefull and all of them fledd and escaped So thatt Capte: ARGOLL Cowlde have other Revendge then by Cutteinge downe their Corne burneinge their howses and Sutche lyke The wch being Pformed he Retourned to James Towne ageine.

The Salvages still contineweinge their mallice Ageinste us Sentt some as spyes to our foarte who beinge Apprehended my Lord Cawsed one to have his hande Cutt of And so Sentte unto his fellowes to geve them warneinge for Attemptinge the lyke.

Aboutt this Tyme there was A Conspiracy plotteinge amongste some of our men wch wrought in Iron mynes To Runn away wth A barkque The same beinge discovered my Lord for An example adiudged one of them by marshall lawe to be executed. The execution Pveinge strange And seldome heard of I thoughtte nott to omitt, for the Pty beinge throwen of the Lather whatt wth the Swindge and weighte of his body the Roape did breake and he fell upon the grownde And in Regard of the Accident my Lord Pdoned him althowghe itt nothinge Avayled him haveinge Receved his deathe wth the gerde of the Roape and extremity of the fall so that wthin 2 days after he dyed My Lord intendinge to searche for Mineralls and to make further Pfe of the Iron mynes sentt dyvrs men in A barkque upp to the falles and goeinge by A POAMATAKE they weare called A shoare by the Salvages and beinge to fill their Baricoes wth water weare easely thereunto induced and after intysed by the Salvages upp to their howses pretendeinge to feaste them butt our men forgetteinge their Subtellties lyke greedy fooles accepted thereof more esteameinge of A Little foode then their own lyves and saffety for when the Indyans had them in their howses And found A fitteinge Tyme when they Leaste dreaded any dawnger did fall upon them Slewe dyvrs and wownded all the rest who wthin towe dayes after also dyed onely DOWSE the Taborer who flyeinge to their boate was hardly pursewed butt gayneinge the same he made A vertewe of neccessity useinge the Rudder insteade of A Targett to kepe their Arrowes outt of his body. And so skulleinge of by little and little gott out of their Reache and freed himselfe The Salvages be nott Soe Simple as many Imagin who be not Acquaynted wth their Subtellties for they had nott forgotten how their neighbours att KEKOWHATAN wer alured And defeated by Sr Tho: GATES when he had the same Taborer with him

Presently after Capte: BRUSTER was sentte upp to the falles wth A Certeine number of men To Attende there for my Lords Comeinge who purposed to Pcede in the Searche of mineralles In his iorney he had dyvrs encownters and skirmishes wth the Indyans Att Lengthe aryveinge att the falles where my Lord did shortly after Come unto him Leaveinge the Chardge and Comawnd of James Towne wth me.

Now my Lorde beinge att the Falles and winter Comeinge on he Cawsed A foarte to be buylded there bothe for their defence and shelter and named the same LAWARES foarte Intendinge to have Reposed himselfe there all the winter and to have Pceded upon the discovery of mineralls the next Springe where for A Tyme we will Leave him and Retourne to our Pcedeinges att James Towne ageinge.

The govermentt whereof beinge lefte to me PASPAHE wth a small Troope of Indyans in sheowe did come unto our Blockhowse thinkeinge by some pollecy either to have Surprysed the same or some of our men. The wch comeinge to my hearinge I presently sent Capte: POWELL then my ANTYENTT wth a certeine Number of men to surprise PASPAHE Allyve if possibly they cowlde for the same wolde have bene to good purpose if itt cowld have bene effected whereupon our men draweinge neare unto him where he stoode upon the ende of A Banke when presently Mr John WALLER stepped unto him and cawghtt howlde of him and gave the Watche worde for the Reste to Come to Assiste him The wch the Salvages Pceveinge dyvrs of them Appeared wch before weare nott seene sendeinge their Arrowes frely amongste our men. The wch Capte: POWELL seeinge did Apprehend thatt their was small hope to bringe in PASPAHE Alyve for he strugled maynely Whereupon he Thruste him twyse throwghe the body wth his Sworde and for all thatt the stowte Indyan Lived and was Caryed away upon Rafters by the Salvages And lieftenantt PUTTOCKE encowntringe wth one of the Salvages hande to fiste grapled wth him and stabbed him to deathe wth his ponnyard.

My Lord Generall all this Tyme Remayneinge att the Falles where nether sicknes nor sakresty was wanteinge had dyvrs encownters wth the Indyans some of his men beinge slayne amonge the Reste his Kinsman Capte: WILLIAM WESTE and Capteine BRUSTER narrowly escaped.

And now my Lords groweinge very Sicke he was inforced to Allter his former determinacyon and to retourne to James towne ageine where his Sickness nothinge Abated butt rather increased So thatt for the Recovery of his healthe he did take his voyadge for the bathe att MEUIS in the Weste Indies Butt the wyndes not favoreinge them they weare inforced to shape their Cowrse directly for England my Lorde haveinge lefte and apointed me deputy governour in his Absence To execute Marshall lawe or any other power and Authority as Absolute as himselfe.

After my Lords depture the Indyans did fall to their wonted practyses ageine Comeinge one eaveninge Late and Called att our blocke howse The wch when I understood I presently sentt to Lieftenantt PUTTOCKE who comawnded there thatt he sholde by noe meanes Stur owtt of the Blocke howse, butt to kepe An excedinge Carefull guarde and watches, and to strengthen him I sentt him more men to double his guard Ageine expresly geveinge him Chardge thatt he shold nott goe owtt of the block howse upon Any Tearmes whattsoever Pmisseinge him that the nextt morneinge I wolde send him A convenyentt number of men to discover whatt they weare and of whatt strenghtt wch had soe called them.

Butt Lieftenantt PUTTOCKE beinge called ageine early the nextt morneinge before our watche was discharged in the foarte, Contrary to my Comawnde and moste unadvysedly did goe outt of the Block howse wth the small number of men he had Sheowinge more vallour then will more fury then Judgementt. And some fewe Indyans beinge in Sheowe he followed them wthoutt apprehensyon of that wch ensewed for the Salvages still Retyreinge he followed them untill they browghte him into their ambuskado where beinge five or sixe hundrethe of Salvages lett flye their Arrowes as thinke As hayle amongste our handfull of men And defeated and Cutt them all of in A moment The Arrowes wch they had shott beinge so many in Number thatt the grownd there aboutts was allmoste Covered wth them upon wch defeate the Salvages did so Aclamate Showte and hallowe in Tryumphe of their gayned victory thatt the Ecchoe there of made bothe the Ayere and woods to Ringe. The wch filleinge our eares in the Foarte presently wth all Spede I sentt lieftenant ABBOTT wth fifty men to Assiste PUTTOCKE nott knoweinge derecttly whatt had befallen them Althoughe we feared thatt wch had alereddy hapned. Neverthelesse Lieftent ABBOTT encowntred wth the Salvages They then Changeinge their noate Cryeinge PASPAHE PASPAHE Thereby importeinge as mutche, as thatt they had Revendged his wrongs att lenghtt ABBOTT putt the Indyans to flight Recovered the deade bodyes of our men whome he browghte to our foarte where they weare Buryed.

Upon this disaster I sentt A messenger unto ALGERNOWNS foarte supposeinge my Lorde La Ware had bene noe further on his voydge to have informed him hereof butt the messenger Loste his Labour my Lord beinge before depted. In shorte Tyme after Capte: ADDAMES did come into our bay in a shipped called the blessinge wth freshe Supply bothe of men and victewells geveinge us notice thatt Sr Tho: DALE was to come shorttly after wth A greater supply the wch Pved Trewe for wthin towe monthes after he Aryved in Virginia and browghtt wth him thre hundrethe men besydes greatt store of Armour, Municyon victewalls and other Pvissyon. And beinge Landed he ordeyned newe Lawes sett downe good Articles wch weare well observed All our men beinge setto worcke some to plante some to sowe corne and others to buyld boates and howses moste men inployed in one thinge or another. All things in Tyme beinge well settled and ordered Sr Thomas DALE made preparatyon and wente ageinste the NANCEMONDIES wth a hundrethe men in Armour where he had dyvrs encownters and skirmishes wth the Salvages bothe by Lande and water dyvrs of his company beinge wownded. Amongste the Reste Capte: FRANCIS WESTE was shott into the Thyghe and Capteine MARTIN into the Arme. Sir Tho: DALE himselfe narrowly eskapeinge for An arrow light, iuste upon the edge of Brimme of his headepiece The wch if itt had fallen A thowght Lower mightt have Shott him into the Braynes and indangered his Lyfe. In theis Conflictts many Indyans beinge also slayne and wownded. And nott beinge acquainted nor acustomed to encownter wth men in Armour mutche wondered thereatt especyally thatt they did nott see any of our men fall as they had donne in other conflictts. Whereupon they did fall into their exorcismes coniuracyons and charmes throweinge fyre upp into the skyes Runneinge up and downe wth Rattles and makeinge many dyabolicall gestures wth many irigramantcke Spelles and incantacionus Imageinge thereby to cawse Raine to fall from the Clowdes to extinguishe and putt owtt our mens matches and to wett and spoyle their powder butt nether the dievall whome they adore nor all their Sorcerres did anytheinge Avayle them for our men Cutt downe their Corne Burned their howses and besydes those wch they had slayne browghtt some of them prissoners to our foarte.

Sr Tho: DALE makeinge more invasyons & excursions upon the Salvages had many conflictts wth them and one thinge amongste the reste was very remarkable The wch may be supposed to have bene ocasyoned by the Salvages Sorceries and Charmes for Sr Thomas DALE wth Some of the better sorte sitteinge in An Indyans howse A fantasy possessed them thatt they imagined the Salvages were sett upon them eache man Takeinge one another for an Indyan And so did fall pell mell one upon An other beateinge one another downe and breakeinge one of Anothers heades, thatt Mutche mischiefe mighte have bene donn butt thatt itt pleased god the fantasy was taken away whereby they had bene deluded and every man understood his errour.

Aboutt this Tyme A Spanishe Caravell Aryved upon the Coaste and did come into the Bay wthowt command of Shotte. ----- Thre principall of the Spanyards comeinge A shoare in their Boate nott furr of ALGERNOWNS foarte The wch Capte: DAVIS espyeinge layd in Ambushe for them they nott knoweinge of any foarte to be theare and so surprysed them the chefeste of them beinge one DIEGO MALINOS A comawnder of some foarte or houlde in the WESTE Indies the other Antonio PEREOS his companyon The thirde A pylott who wentt under the name and habbitt of A Spanyard, butt was after fownde and discovered to be Inglishe man his name beinge LIMBRECKE haveinge lived many years Amongste the Spanyards and Reputed to be A Goode Pylott After the serpryseinge of theis thre the boate wherein they did come putt from the shoare the men therein beinge questyoned pretended to seke for one of the Kinge of Spaynes shippes loaden wth municyon bownd for the Weste Indies Requesteinge Capte: DAVIS to lett them have A pylott to bringe their shipp into the harbour the wch was grawnted Butt haveinge the pylott noe soener a board hoysed upp their sayles and caryed the pylott quyte away wth them Leaveinge the thre wch weare surprysed in his steade behynd them, who weare thereupon broughtt to James Towne and sentt as prissoners A board severall shippes And shortly after Sr Tho: DALE sentt my Selfe Capte NEWPORT and Mr STRACY secretary to the Collonie to examin them And so Acuseinge them to have come for spyes they utterly denyed the same butt still urgeinge them there wth Anto: PEREOS answered thatt we had noe cawse att all to feare any thinge this yere butt whatt mightt happen the nextt he coulde nott tell. And itt after appeared their intente was as eavell as we imagined for the Spanishe Ambassadour shorttly after gayned A Commissyon from the Kings Matie Kinge James Thatt we sholde send the principall DIEGO MALINOS into England the wch wth all spede was effected Capte: MARTIN beinge his conductt. Don DIEGO stayed nott longe in England. Butt was sentt hoame where he was made Generall of six tall shippes in All lykeliehoode and as we weare after certenely informed sett outt of purpose to Supplantt us. Butt haveinge bene att Sea about A monthe A mutenie did growe amongste them in so mutche thatt one of diegoes company stabbed him to deathe Whereupon their Course was alltered and their former determinacyon ceased. Antonio PEREOS he dyed before in Virginia and Sr Tho: DALE att his goeinge for England did take our hispanyolated Inglishe man LIMBRECKE wth him. And acordinge to some pryvate Comissyon when he did come wthin sighte of the Inglishe Shoare he cawsed him to be hanged upp att the yardes Arme as afterwards itt was trewly reported.

Before Sr Tho: DALES depture Capte DAVIS att ALGERNOWNS foarte espyed nyne shippes upon the coaste Supposeinge them to be Spanishe And Sendeinge notice thereof to Sir Tho: DALE he presenttly sentt Capte: BRUSTER and Lieftenantt ABBOTT wth forty men to discover whatt they weare And they nott Retourninge acordinge to Sir Thomas expectacyon he feared thatt they weare either Surprysed or defeated. Whereupon he drewe All his forces into forme and order reddy for encownter Calleinge A Cowncell to Resolve whether itt weare beste to mete wth them. A board our shippes or for to maynteine the foart. My opinyon I delyvered to Sir Tho: DALE and the Reste. Thatt is was dowttfull whether our men wolde stande unto itt A shoare and Abyde the Brunte, butt A shippboard of necessety they muste for there was noe runneinge Away. So makeinge preparatyon to goe A board Capt: BRUSTER and Lieftenantt ABBOTT retourned and broughte us certeine newes thatt itt was Sr Tho: GATES flete who was come now to be governour And Aryved there thatt eaveninge wth A freshe supply bothe of men And Pvissyon haveinge unladen the shippes & ordered other necessary ocassyons Sr Tho: GATES Apointed Sr Tho: DALE their Marshall of the Collonie as itt was agreed upon in England to passe upp into the Cowntry neare unto the Falles wth aboutt towe hundrethe men to inhabitt there Capte: BRUSTER Leadinge Moste of his men overland and him selfe And A small company goeinge by water Capteyne BRUSTER in his martche was dyvs tymes assawlted and encowntered by the salvages beinge sente from POWHATAN haveinge for their Leader one MUNETUTE comonly called amongste us Jacke of the feathers. By Reason thatt he used to come into the felde all covered over wth feathers and Swans wings fastened unto his showlders as thowghe he meante to flye Capte: BRUSTER comeinge to the place apointed where Sr Tho: DALE did also mete wth him. And after dyvs encownter and skirmishes wth the salvages gayned A convenyentt place for fortificatyon where presenttly they did begin to buylde A foarte And Sr Tho: DALE named the same HENERICAS foarte in honnour of prinse Henry The Salvages weare nott Idle all this Tyme butt hindred their designes as muche as they colde shoteinge Arrowes into the foarte where wth dyvrs of our men weare wownded & others indangered And some haveinge inploymentt wthoutt The foarte did come shorte hoame and weare slayne by the Salvages.

Sr Tho: DALE haveinge allmoste finished the foarte and settled A plantacyon in thatt Pte dyvrs of his men being Idile and not willeinge to take paynes did Runne Away unto the Indyans many of them beinge taken ageine Sr Thomas in A moste severe mannor cawsed to be executed. Some he apointed to be hanged Some burned Some to be broken upon wheles, others to be staked and some to be shott to deathe all theis extreme and crewell tortures he used and inflicted upon them To terrefy the reste for Attempteinge the Lyke and some wch Robbed the store he cawsed them to be bownd faste unto Trees and so sterved them to deathe.

So leaveinge Sr Thomas busely inployed in finisheinge the foarte and settleinge their habitacyons lett us Retourne to James Towne ageine where our governor Sr Tho: GATES was resydentt Onely by the waye Southe A little att ALGERNOWNES foarte the wch was accidentially burned downe to the grownd except Capte: DAVIS howse and store howse. Whereupon Capte: DAVIS fearinge to Receve some displeasure and to be Removed from thense the same beinge the moste plentifulleste place for food, he used sutche expedityon In the Rebuyldeinge of the same ageine thatt it is allmoste incredible.

Dyvrs Indyans used to come to our foarte att James Towne bringeinge victewalls wth them Butt indede did Rather come as Spyes then any good affectyon they did beare unto us. Some of them Sr Tho: GATES cawsed to be Apprehended and executed for A Terrour to the Reste to cawse them to desiste from their subtell practyses.

Thus haveinge Related unto your Lordshipp the Trewe Pcedeinges in Virginia from Sr Tho: GATES shippwracke upon the BERMUDES untill my depture outt of the cowntry wch was the 22th Aprell 1612 The wch day I sett sayle in A shipp named the Tryall And haveinge by computacyon sayled Aboutt 200 leauges wth A Reasonable good wynde and fayere weather upon A Sudden A Greate storme did Aryse In so mutch thatt the mission maste did springe wth the vyolence of the wyndes. And lyeinge in the Great Cabbin where the misson stoode I was thereby muche indawngered and in perrill of my Lyfe, for the same wth greate force did grate upon my Cabbin and narrowly missed me And A barrell full wth bere Beinge in the Cabbin the misson strucke the same to pieces thatt all the bere did Runne Aboutt the Cabbin.

The Storme ceasinge and our misson amended we Recovered flores Cowes and St Michelles nott towcheinge att any of theis Islands Butt shaped our Cowrse Northwarde where, falleinge becallmed our dawnger was greater then the former for feare of famin and wante of foode haveinge butt a poore small quantetie of freshe water and thatt was so stencheous thatt onely washeinge my hands there wth I cold nott endure the sentt thereof. Our greateste store of foode was pease. And those weare so corrupted mowldie Rotten worme eaten thatt there was noe Substance lefte in them butt beinge stiwred wolde Crumbell into duste, so thatt for wante of foode we weare lyke to Pishe. Butt god lookeinge mercyfully upon us, when we leaste expected to see our native Cowntry ageine. We happely mett wth A shipp of London bownde for newe fownd lande one BAKER beinge master thereof who Releved us wth Befe fishe Breade bere and Tobaco wch greattly Comforted us and saved our lyves for itt was Above Thirty dayes after before we made lande wch was Ireland So after A longe dangerous voyage we did fall wth the Lande and putt into CROOKEHAVEN. Where we Remayned some fowertene dayes in wch Tyme we Refreshed ourselves and Revicteweled our shipp. And then sett sayle ageine And wthin eight dayes after Aryved in England and Anchored in DOVER ROADE, where we did mete wth Sr Samuell ARGALL bownde for new ENGLAND To displante the frenche Collonie there. The wch As I after hearde he valliantly Pformed, Butt how iuste the Cawse was I refer the same to A Judityous Censure. So stayeinge some fewe dayes att DOVER to Acompany Sr Samuell I toake poaste horse and from thense Roade to London