A TRUE DISCOURSE OF THE PRESENT ESTATE OF VIRGINIA, and the successe of the affaires there till the 18 of June, 1614. TOGETHER. WITH A RELATION OF THE severall English Townes and forts, the assured hopes of that countrie and the peace concluded with the Indians. The Christening of Powhatans daughter and her mariage with an English- man.
Written by RAPHE HAMOR the yonger, late Secretarie in that Colony.

Alget, qui non ardet.

Printed at London by JOHN BEALE for WILLIAM WELBY dwelling at the signe of the Swanne in Pauls Church yard, 1615.

TO THE TRULY Honorable, and right worthy Knight, Sr. Thomas Smith, Governour of the East India, Muscovia North-west passages, Somer Islands Companies, and Treasurer for the first Colony in VIRGINIA.

Honourable Sir:

HAving in the time of my residence in Virginia (as it is true my imployment then invited mee thereunto) collected for my owne use and benefit, some few occurents and accidents, which are obvious in all new imployments, a thing which perhaps but few regard there to busie themselves with, and fewer heer to peruse: I resolved indeed only to delight my selfe, and som who I am bound to be thankefull unto in that kinde, with the unworthy view of them, the rather, because I have seen many publications & impressions of those those affairs, by those, whose books I should be proud to beare after them: but such is the perversenes of mankinde, such their incredulity of every thing, save what their eies tell them to be true: yea, such their backwardnes in the pursuit of honorable enterprises, that though there should bee no end of writing, but every day should drawe foorth his line, and every line his reall encouragement, as mine may in the state of the Colony, as it now standeth, it were hard to say whether one of so many thousands as abound in England, might be thereby moved to joine with others right worthyly disposed, to become a harty and devoted furtherer of an action so noble, as is this, which thing if I faile in effecting, I shall not lose much labour, since when I undertook this taske, I imagined no such thing: but meerely my owne delight and content. It shall be reward enough for me to expresse my indeavoursthere, though not equall with the best, yet not idly mispent.

I labor not to seduce or betray any into an action or imployment, wherein once personally ingaged, they should have any cause to blame me, neither would I force the helpe of any mans purse, more then voluntary, if I could beyond my art, use such effectuall perswasions.

There are enough in my opinion, and those the worthyest of England already united, as the way is now laid downe, to perfect this businesse, whole indeavours, if they proceed without back slyding, and therein persist some fewe yeers longer, shall be requited and paid with such treble interest, as it shall not repent him that is now most cold in the pursuit, to have refused more Competitors to be sharers in the returnd profit.

Your noble selfe Sir, ever emulous of vertue, and honourable Enterprises, should shine to the world more noble in the upholding of this imployment, though it apeared, as in the beginning, full of discouragement, which neverthelesse, I know your selfe rests so assured is now more neer, then ever to perfection. Your innate and habituall vertue needs no spurre, your honourable indeavours well witnesse the same: would God (as is yours) al mens offrings, though not so ample, were to free, so hartily sacrificed: then could they not thus long have wanted their rewards, perhaps for no other end detained, but to make others, a thing which God professeth to love and delight in, more cheerful givers. Accept (worthy Sir) this unworthy Treatise, the best testimony of my gratuity, which as yet my disabilities may render. Trueth shall shroud and patronize it, from the malevolent detracting multitude; whose blame though it incurre their shame and imputation, it scorns, and returns unto them.

My zeale to the Action, though I may seeme to have forsaken it, gives mee the heart to publish, what I know, to the world: To your selfe particularly your own worth, and deserts to me, irrequitable, graunt but that favourable acceptation, which ever accompanies your worth; and I shal ever acknowledge my selfe wholy yours, in hope wherof I conclude with my service: & rest,

At your command to be disposed off;


To the Reader

Ignorant, or envious, if you be Readers: it is not to satisfie the best of you that I now write, a more seasonable time I must take to imbarque my selfe in so rough a Sea and come off safe: onely his authoritie (who hath power to compell my selfe and duety) hath commaunded me to satisfie his affections (covetous of the dignitie and truth of this pious Plantation) with these particulars: that they are got abroade, and become publike, was no purpose in their first conception, though some respect have made them so now: A naked and unstudied discourse, I acknowledge, without notes reserved (but in Memorie) to helpe it: yet thus much I doe avow, that it hath duety and truth to make good all other the wants, and imperfections of it: I will labour in no further excuse.

Concerning the Virginie pious worke it selfe, how it hath thrived under the commaund both of Sir Thomas Gates Knight, Governour, and Sir Thomas Dale Knight, and Marshall of the Collonie, these three yeeres and more: let me say, if (setting aside thine owne overweening and singularity) thy unhoodded eye can now at length looke upon it (after so many yeeres of her patience and passions) thou wilt easily acknowledge, whose finger hath the alone-guidance of it, and then (I doubt nothing) be pleased to here thy selfe intreated (out of those great plenties and havings which God hath lent thee) to spare a little-little portion to the ful setling and finishing up a Sanctum Sanctorum an holy house, a Sanctuary to him, the God of the Spirits, of all flesh, amongst such poore and innocent seduced Savages as we treate off, on whom let our hopes be, that it hath vouchsafed him now to be sufficiently revenged for their forefathers Ingratitude and treasons, and now in his appointed time to descéd in mercie, to lighten them that sit in darkenes, and in the shaddow of death, and to direct their feete in the waies of peace.

Sure yong though in yeeres and knowledge I may be said to be, yet let me remember, to thee perhaps much knowing Reader, what the wisest man that ever writ or speake (excepting him that was both God and man) hath said, that such who bring others unto righteousnesse shal themselves shine as the stars in the firmament. And doubtlesse I doe beleeve, even amongst the rest of my Articles, when these poore Heathens shall be brought to entertaine the honour of the name, and glory of the Gospell of our blessed Saviour, when they shall testifie of the true and everliving God, and Jesus Christ to be their Salvation, their knowledge so inlarged and sanctified, that without him they confesse their eternal death: I do beleeve I say (and how can it be otherwise?) that they shal breake out and cry with rapture of so inexplicable mercie: Blessed be the King and Prince of England, and blessed be the English Nation, and blessed for ever be the most high God possessor of Heaven and earth, that sent these English as angels to bring such glad tidings amongst us. These will be doubtlesse the empaticke effects and exultation of this so Christian worke, and may these nothing move? Alas let Sanbal'at and Tobiah, Papists and Plaires, Ammonites and Horonites, the feumme and dregges of the people, let them mocke at this holy Businesse, they that be filthie, let them be filthie still, and let such swine wallow in the mire, but let not the rod of the wicked fall upon the lot of the righteous, let not them shrinkebacke, and call in their helpes from this so glorious enterprise, which the Prophet Isaiah cals, the declaring of God to the left hand, but let them that know the worke, rejoice and be glad in the happie successe of it, proclaiming that it is the everliving God that raigneth in England, and unto the ends of the world.

Excuse me (curteous Reader) if caried beyond my purpose, I declaime passionately in this passive and innocently despised worke, which I am sure is so full of goodnesse, and have bin almost six yeers a Sufferer and eye witnes of his now well nigh atchieved happinesse, the full and unstained reportory of every accident whereof even from his beginning, together with the causes of the backwardnes, in prosperity thus log, touching at the miraculous delivery of the scattered company, cast upon the Bermudas, when those fortunate Islands like so many faire Neriades which received our wrackt company, with the death of that pure and noble hearted Gentleman Sir George Sumers diing there, my purpose is shortly at large to publish, that at length some one escaped Leaper, amongst so many saved, may returne backe and pay his vowes of thanks giving unto that ever to be praised mercifull providence that brought us thither, until when I wish thy zealous and fervant thoughts and indevours to a businesse so full of piety, as is this our Virginie Plantation.


A True Discourse of the present Estate of Virginia, and the success of the affaires there till the 18 of June 1614

The many publications and impressions of Virginia, an imployment wherein to this day my selfe and many other unstaid heads & thirstie after new designes, have bin to unprofitably ingaged, might justly excuse my silence, did not the filiall duty whereby in all things to the utmost of my power I am bound to obey my Father, compell me unwillingly thereunto: A taske I know by himselfe and others, meerely because I have bin Oculatus testis, thus imposed upon me, in the undertaking and performance whereof, I hartily wish that my poore relation, rich onely in truth (as I shall cleerely justifie my selfe by eie witnesses also) may give any credit or incouragement to proceede in a businesse so full of honour, and worth, whereunto (if there were no secondary causes) the already publisht ends, I meane the glory of God, in the conversion of those Infidels, and the honour of our King and country (which by right may claime at the least their superfluities, from those whom God hath in this world made his dispensers and purse-bearers) might be a sufficient spurre to resolved Christians, especially the state and condition of our collonie, so standing when I left it, and I assure my selfe in this time growne more mature, that an honest hart would even relent, and mourne to thinke how poorely, I dare not say unworthily it is prosecuted. It being true that now after five yeeres intestine warre with the revengefull implacable Indians, a firme peace (not againe easily to be broken) hath bin lately concluded, not onely with the nighbour, and bordering Indians, as on Pataomecke, Topahanah, and other Rivers, but even with that subtill old revengefull Powhatan and all the people under his subjection, for all whom Powhatan himselfe stands firmely ingaged, by which meanes we shall not onely be furnished with what commodities their countrie yeeldeth, and have all the helpes they may afforde us in our indeavors (as they are easily taught, and may lenitie and faire usage, as Sir Thomas Dale now principall commander there, and most worthy the honour he houlds, is well experienced in their dispositions, and accordingly makes use of them) be brought, being naturally though ingenious, yet idely givé, to be no lesse industrious, nay to exceede our English, especially those which we hitherto and as yet are furnished with, who for the most part no more sensible then beasts, would rather starve in idlenesse (witnesse their former proceedings) then feast in labour, did not the law compell them thereunto, but also which will be most for our benefit, our owne men may without hazard, I might say with security (by selfe- experience) follow their severall labours, whereby twentie shall now bee able to performe more then heretofore hath bin fortie.

Though I conjecture and assure my selfe that yee cannot be ignorant by what meanes this place hath bin thus happily both for our proceeding and the welfare of the Naturals concluded, yet for the honour of Captain Argol whose indeavours in the action intitled him most worthy, I judge it no whit impertinét in my discourse to insert them, which with as much brevity as I may, not omitting the circumstances most pertinent and materiall, I shall indeavour.

The general letters upon my knowledge, directed and sent to the honourable Virginia Councell, being most of them (though my selfe most unworthy) by me penned have intimated, how that the everworthy gentlemá Capt. Argall > in the heate of our home furies & disagreements by his best experience of the dispositió of those people, partly by gentle usage & partly by the composition & mixture of threats hath ever kept faire & friendly quarter with our neighbours bordering on other rivers of affinity, yea consanguinity, no lesse neere then brothers to Powhatan, such is his well knowne temper and discretion, yea to this passe hath he brought them, and they assuredly trust upon what he promiseth, and are as carefull in performing their mutuall promises, as though they contended to make that Maxim, that there is no faith to be held with Infidels, a meere and absurd Paradox: Nay as I have heard himselfe relate, who is fide dignus, they have even bin pensive and discontented with themselves, because they knew not how to doe him some acceptable good turne, which might not onely pleasure him, but even be profitable to our whole Collonie, and Plantation, yea ever assuring him that when the times should present occasion, they would take hold of her forelocke, and be the instruments to worke him con-B2tent, and even thus they proved themselves as honest performers, as liberall promisers. It chaunced Powhatans delight and darling, his daughter Pocahontas, (whose fame hath even bin spred in England by the title of Nonparrella of Virginia) in her princely progresse, if I may so terme it, tooke some pleasure (in the absence of Captaine <Argall > (to be among her friends at Pataomecke (as it seemeth by the relation I had) imploied thither, as shopkeepers to a Fare, to exchange some of her fathers commodities for theirs, where residing some three months or longer, it fortuned upon occasion either of promise or profit, Captaine <Argall > to arrive there, whom Pocahantas, desirous to renue his familiaritie with the English, and delighting to see them, as unknowne, fearefull perhaps to be surprised, would gladly visit, as she did, of whom no sooner had Captaine <Argall > intelligence, but he delt with an old friend, and adopted brother of his Iapazeus, how and by what meanes he might procure hir captive, assuring him, that now or never, was the time to pleasure him, if he entended indeede that love which he had made profession of, that in ransome of hir he might redeeme some of our English men and armes, now in the possession of her Father, promising to use her withall faire, and gentle entreaty: Iapazeus well assured that his brother, as he promised would use her curteously promised his best indeavours and secrecie to accomplish his desire, and thus wrought it, making his wife an instrument (which sex have ever bin most powerfull in beguiling inticements) to effect his plot which hee had thus laid, he agreed that himselfe, his wife, and Pocahuntas, would accompanie his brother to the water side, whether come, his wife should faine a great and longing desire to goe aboorde, and see the shippe, which being there three or foure times, be- fore she had never seene, and should bee earnest with her hushand to permit her: he seemed angry with her, making as he pretended so unnecessary a request, especially being without the company of women, which deniall she taking unkindely, must faine to weepe, (as who knows not that women can command teares) whereupon her husband seeming to pitty those counterfeit teares, gave her leave to goe aboord, so that it would please Pochahuntas to accompany her; now was the greatest labour to win her, guilty perhaps of her fathers wrongs, though not knowne as she supposed to goe with her, yet by her earnest perswasions, she assented: so forth with aboord they went, the best cheere that could be made was seasonably provided, to supper they went, merry on all hands, especially Iapazeus and his wife, who to expres their joy, would ere be treading upó Capt. Argals foot, as who should say tis don, she is your own. Supper ended, Pochahuntas was lodged in the Gunners roome, but Iapazeus and his wife desired to have some conference with their brother, which was onely to acquaint him by what stratagem they had betraied his prisoner, as I have already related: after which discourse to sleepe they went, Pocahuntas nothing mistrusting this policy, who nevertheless being most possessed with feare, and desire of returne, was first up, and hastened Iapazeus to be gon. Capt. <Argall > having secretly well rewarded him, with a small Copper kettle, and som other les valuable toies so highly by him esteemed, that doubtlesse he would have betrayed his owne father for them, permitted both him and his wife to returne, but told him, that for divers considerations, as for that his father had then eigh of our English men, many swords, peeces, and other tooles, which he had at severall times by trecherons murdering our men, taken from them whichB3though of no use to him, he would not redeliver, he would reserve Pocahuntas, whereat she began to be exceeding pensive, and discontented, yet ignorant of the dealing of Iapazeus, who in outward appearance was no less discontented that he should be the meanes of her captivity, much a doe there was to perswade her to be patient, which with extraordinary curteous usage, by little and little was wrought in her, and so to James towne she was brought, a messenger to her father forthwith dispached to advertise him, that his only daughter was in the hands & possession of the English: ther to be kept til such times as he would ransom her with our men, swords, peeces, & other tools treacherously taken from us: the news was unwelcome, and troublesom unto him, partly for the love he bare to his daughter, and partly for the love he bare to our men his prisoners, of whom though with us they were unapt for any imployment) he made great use: and those swords, and peeces of ours, (which though of no use to him) it delighted him to view, and looke upon.

He could not without long advise & delibertion with his Councell, resolve upon anything, and it is true, we heard nothing of him till three months after, by perswasions of others he returned us seaven of our men, with each of them a Musket unserviceable, and by them sent us word, that whensoever wee pleased to deliver his daughter, he would give us in satisfaction of his injuries done to us, and for the rest of our peeces broken and stolne from him, 500 Bushells of Corne, and be for ever friends with us, the men, and Peeces in part of payment we received: and returned him answere, that his daughter was very well, and kindely intreated, and so should be howsoever he dealt with us: but we could not believe that the rest of our Arms were either lost, or stolne from him, and therefore till he returned them all, we would not by any meanes deliver his daugh-,ter and then it should be at his choice, whether he would establish peace, or continue enemies with us. This answere as it seemed, pleased him not very wel, for we heard no more from him till in March last, when with Captaine <Argall > s Shippe, and some other Vessells belonging to the Colony, Sir Thomas Dale with an hundred and fifty men well appointed, went up into his owne River, where his chiefest habitations were, and carried with us his daughter, either to move them to fight for her, if such were their courage and boldnesse, as hath been reported, or to restore the residue of our demands, which were our peeces, swords, tooles. Some of the same men which he returned (as they promised) ran to him again, and because he had put us to the trouble to fetch them five hundred bushels of Corne: A great bravado all the way as we went up the River they made, demaunding the cause of our comming thither, which wee tould them was to deliver Pocahuntas, whom purposely we had brought with us, and to receive our Armes, men, & corn or else to fight with them, burn their howses, take away their Canoas, breake downe their fishing Weares, and doe them what other damages we could: Some of them to set a good face on the matter, replied, that if wee came to fight with them we were welcome, for they were provided for us, councelling us rather to retire (if wee loved our safeties) then proceed, bragging, as well they might, that wee had ever had the worst of them in that River, instancing by Capt: Ratliefe (not worthy remembering, but to his dishonor) who, with most of his company they betrayed and murthered: we told them since they durst remember us of that mischief, unlesse they made the better and more speedy agreement, we would now revenge that trechery, and with this discourse by the way as we went, we proceeded, and had no sooner entred the narrow of the river, the channell there lying within shot of the shoare, but they let their arrowes flie amongst us in the shippe themselves unseene to us, and in the forehead hurt one of our men, which might have hazarded his life without the present helpe of a skillfull Chirurgion.

Being thus justly provoked, we presently manned our boats, went ashoare, and burned in that verie place some forty houses, and of the things we found therein, made freeboote and pillage, and as themselves afterward confest unto us, hurt and killed five or sixe of their men, with this revenge satisfying our selves, for that their presumption in shooting at us, and so the next day proceeded higher up the River, and Indians calling unto us, and demaunding why we went ashoare, burnt their houses, killed and hurt their men, and tooke away their goods. We replied that though we came to them in peaceable manner, and would have beene glad to have received our demaunds with love and peace, yet we had hearts and power to take revenge, and punish where wrongs should be offered, which having now don, though not so severely as we might, we rested content there with and are ready to imbrace peace with them if they pleased. Many excuses they seemed to pretend, that they shot not at us, but (if any such abuse were offered) it was some stragled Indian, ignorant of our pretence in comming to them, affirming that they themselves would be right glad of our love, and would indeavour to helpe us to what we came for, which being in the possession of Powhatan their King, they would without delay dispatch messengers to him, to know his purpose and pleasure, desiring faire quarter some 24 howers, for so long they pretend it would be before their messengers might returne this wee graunted,and what we promised, we ever exactly performed, the time now come, we inquired what Powhatan would doe, and had for answere, that our Englishmen lately with him, fearefull to be put to death by us, were runne away, and some of Powhatans men sent abroade in quest of them, but our swords and peeces so many as he had should be brought the next day, which meerely to delay time, they bare us in hand the next day they came not, higher up the river we went, and ancored neere unto the chiefest residencie Powhatan had, at a towne called Matchcot where were assembled (which we saw) about 400 men, well appointed with their bowes and arrowes to welcome us, here they dared us to come a shoare, a thing which we purposed before, so a shoare we went, our best landing being up a high steepe hill which might have given the enemy much advantage against us, but it seemed they as we were unwilling to begin, and yet would gladly have bin at blowes, being landed as if they had no shew of fear, they stirred not from us, but walked up and downe, by and amongst us, the best of them inquiring for our Weroance or king, with whom they would gladly consult to know the occasion of our comming thither, whereof when they were informed, they made answere that they were there ready to defend themselves, if we pleased to assault them, desiring neverthelesse some small time to dispatch two or three men once more to their king, to know his resolution, which if not answerable to our requests, in the morning if nothing else but blood would then satisfie us, they would fight with us, and thereby determine our quarrell, which was but a further delay to procure time to carrie away their provisions, neverthelesse we agreed to this their request, assuring them till the next day by noone we would not molest, hurt, nor detaine any of them, and then before we fought, our Drum and Trumpets should give them warning: upon which promise of ours, two of Powhatans sonnes being very desirous to see their sister who was there present ashore with us, came unto us, at the sight of whom, and her well fare, whom they suspected to be worse intreated, though they had often heard the contrary, they much rejoyced, and promised that they would undoubtedly perswade their father to redeem her, and to conclude a firme peace forever with us, and upon this resolution the two brothers with us retired aboarde, we having first dispatched two English men, Master John Rolfe and master Sparkes to acquaint their Father with the businesse in hand, the next day being kindly intreated, they returned, not at all admitted Powhatans presence, but spake with his brother Apachamo, his successor, one who hath already the commaund of all the people, who likewise promised us his best indeavors to further our just requests, and we because the time of the yeere being then Aprill, called us to our businesse at home to prepare ground, and set corne for our winters provisions, upon these termes departed, giving them respite till harvest to resolve what was best for them to doe, with this Proviso, that if final agreement were not made betwixt us before that time, we would thither returne again and destroy and take away all their corne, burne all the houses upon that river, leave not a fishing Weere standing, nor a Canoa in any creeke thereabout, and destroy and kill as many of them as we could.

Long before this time a gentleman of approved behaviour and honest carriage, master John Rolfe had bin in love with Pocahuntas and she with him, which thing at the instant that we were in parlee with them, my selfe made known to Sir Thomas Dale by a letter from him, whereby he intreated his advise and fur- therance in his love, if so it seemed fit to him for the good of the Plantation, and Pocahuntas her selfe, acquainted her brethren therewith: which resolution Sir Thomas Dale wel approving, was the onely cause: he was so milde amongst them, who otherwise would not have departed their river without other conditions

The bruite of this pretended marriage came soone to Powhatans knowledge, a thing acceptable to him, as appeared by his sudden content thereunto, who some ten daies after sent an olde uncle of hirs, named Opachisco, to give her as his deputy in the Church, and two of his sonnes to see the marriage solemnized, which was accordingly done about the fifth of Aprill and ever since we have had friendly commerce and trade, not onely with Powhatan himselfe, but also with his subjects round about us; so as now I see no reason why the Collonie should not thrive a pace.

Besides this love by this means with Powhatan concluded, it will be worth my paines to turnover our friendship with our next neighbors, the Chicohominies lately confirmed, a lustie and daring people, who have long time lived free from Powhatans subjection, having lawes and governours within themselves: these people hearing of our concluded peace with Powhatan, as the noise thereof was soone bruted abroade, sent two of their men unto us, and two fat Bucks for present to our king (for so Sir Thomas Dale is generally reputed and termed amongst them) and offered themselves and service unto him, alleadging that albeit in former times they had bin our enemies, and we theirs, yet they would now if we pleased become not onely our trustie friends, but even King JAMES his subjects and tributaries, and relinquish their old name of Chicohominies, and take upon them, as they call us the name of Toffanteffas, and because they have C2no principall commander or Weroance, they would intreate Sir Thomas Dale as King JAMES his deputie to be their supreame head, King and governor, and in all just causes and quarrels to defend them, as they would be ready at all times to aide him, onely their desire was to injoy their owne lawes and liberties, and because himselfe, by reason of his many other imployments, beside the charge he hath of his owne people, may not be alwaies present amongst them, to be governed as formerly by eight of the elders and principall men amongst them, as his substitutes and councellers, and even this was the summe and effect of their embassie. Sir Thomas Dale appointed a day to send some men into their river, to propose certaine conditions unto them, whereunto if they assented he would gladly accept of their proferred friendship, and be himselfe their Weroance: and with this answere offering them copper for their venison, which they refused to take, dismissed them.

When the appointed day came, Sir Thomas Dale himselfe and Captaine <Argall > with 50 men in a barge and frigot, well appointed, least any trecherie might be intended, set forward to Chicohominie, an arme of our river some seaven miles from James Town, where we found the people according to promise expecting our comming, assembled and met together, who after their best and most friendly manner, bad us welcome, and because our businesse at home would permit us but finall time of stay with them, they presently sent for their principal men, some of whom were then absent, which hastened unto us, & the next morning very early assembled, and sat in counsell about this businesse, Captaine <Argall > (supplying Sir Thomas Dales place amongst them, who though there present for some respects, concealed himselfe, and kept aboarde his barge) after long discourse or their former proceedings, Captaine <Argall > tould them, that now since they had intreated peace and promised their love and friendship, hee was sent unto them from the great Weroance to conclude the same, all former injuries on both sides, set apart and forgotten, which he would doe upon these conditions.

First they should take upon them, as they promised, the name of Tassantasses or English men, and be King JAMES his subjects, and be forever honest, faithfull and trustie unto his deputie in their countrie.

Secondly, that they should never kill any of our men or catell, but if either our men or cattle should offend them or runne to them, they should bring them home again, and should receive satisfaction for the trespasse done them

Thirdly, they should at all times be ready and willing to furnish us with three or foure hundred bowmen to aide us against the Spaniards, whose name is odious amongst them, for Powhatans father was driven by them from the west-Indies into those parts, or against any other Indians which should, contrary to the established peace offer us any injurie.

Fourthly, they shall not upon any occasion whatsoever breake down any of our pales, or come into any of our Townes or forts by any other waies, issues or ports then ordinary, but first call, and say the Tossantessas are there, and so comming they shall at all times be let in, and kindly entertained.

Fifthly, so many fighting men as they have which may be at the least five hundred should yeerly bring into our store house, at the beginning of their harvest two bushels of corne a man, as tribute of their obedience to his Majestie, and to his deputy there, for which they should receive so many Iron Tomahawkes or small hatchets.C3

Lastly, the eight chiefe men which governe as substitutes and Councellors under Sir Thomas Dale, shall at all times see these Articles and conditions duly performed for which they shall receive a red coat, or livery from our King yeerly, and each of them the picture of his Majesty, ingraven in Copper, with a chaine of Copper to hang it about his necke, whereby they shall be knowne to be King JAMES his noble Men: so as if these conditions, or any of them be broken, the offenders themselves shall not onely be punished, but also those Commanders, because they stand ingaged for them.

After these Articles were thus proposed, the whole assembly assenting thereunto, answered with a great shout, and noise, that they would readily and willingly performe them all and immediately began the chiefe of the eight to make an oration to the rest, bending his speech first to the old men, then to the yong men, and in conclusion to the women and children, giving them thereby to understand the summe of the proposed conditions: and how strictly they were to observe them: in consideration whereof, he further declared what wee have promised to do for them, not onely to defend and keepe them from the fury & danger of Powhatan, which thing they most feared, but even from all other enemies, domesticke, or forraigne, and that we would yeerely by trade furnish them with Copper, Beades, Hatchets, and many other necessaries, yea, which liked them best, that we would permit them to enjoy their owne liberties, freedoms, and lawes, and to be governed as formerly, by eight of their chiefest men.

It shall not be unnecessarie to insert the occasion (as we imagine) of this their much desired, unexpected friendship, which was questionlesse some sodaine feare of Powhatans displeasure, being united with us, now able to revenge their disobedience done unto him: for you must imagine, these people presuming upon their owne strength and number (in no one place in those parts, which we know, so many togeather) to have a long time neglected Powhatan, and refused, (which the place hath been formerly accustomed, and as his right may challenge the homage and duty of subjects, which they ought to have performed: to which obedience, fearing our power might compell them, they chose rather to subject themselves to us, then being enemies to both, to expose & lay themselves open to Powhatans tyranny, & oppression: for this they did chiefly insist upon, that he was an ill Weroaules, full of cruelty, and injustice, covetous of those things they had and implacable if they denyed him whatsoever he demaunded, and for these reasons, desired to be made one people with us, to curbe the pride and ambition of Powhatan, from whom to defend them (they told us it would be no breach of peace on our parts since now they were no longer Chichominies, or Naturalls, of that place, but Tossantessars, and King JAMES his subjects, whom we are bound to defend.

So soone as there was an end of speaking, and the peace firmely concluded, and assented unto, Captaine <Argall > by the guift of eight great peeces of Copper, and eight great Tomahawkes, bound the eight great men, or Councellors to the exact performance, and keeping of the same, according to the conditions proclaimed, which they very gladly and thankefully accepted, and returned him, as testimonies of their loves, Venison, Turkies, Fresh fish, baskets, Mats, and such like things as they were then furnished with, and so the Councell brooke up, and then every man brought to sell to our men Skinners, boules, mats, baskets, tobacco, etc. and became as familiar amongst as if they had been English men indeede.

Thus have I briefely as the matter would permit, discoursed our established friendship with the Naturalls, and the occasions thereof, which I hope will continue so long betweene us, till they shall have the understanding to acknowledge how much they are bound to God for sending us amongst them (then which) what work would be more acceptable to God, more honourable to our King and country?

The greatest, and many enemies and disturbers of our proceedings, and that which hath hitherto detered our people to addresse themselves into those parts have been onely two; emnity with the Naturalls, and the bruit of famine: one of these two (and that indeed, which was some cause of the other) I have already removed, and shall as easily take away the other: howbeit it were too great folly ( I might say impudency in me) to aver that there hath raigned no such infection in the Colony, occasioned, meerly by misgovernment, idlenesse, and faction, and chiefely by the absence of the ever worthy Commaunders, Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir George Summers by the providence of God, miraculously wract and saved upon the hopefull Sumer Islands, since my self cannot but witnesse (of which I had some tast) in what a miserable condition, we found the Colony at our arivall there, from the Bermudas, not living above threescore persons therein, and those scarce able to goe alone, of welnigh six hundred, not full ten moneths before: yet now I dare and will boldly affirme to the greatest adversary of the Plantation, that shall aver the contrary, that there is that plenty of foode, which every man by his owne industry may easily, & doth procure that the poorest there, & most in want, hath not been so much pinched with hunger this 4 yeers that if he would take any pains, he knew not wher to fetch a good meales meate: and true it is, that every day by the providence, and blessing of God, and their owne industry, they have more plenty then other the reason hereof is at hand, for formerly, when our people were fedde out of the common store and laboured jointly in the manuring of the ground, and planting corne, glad was that man that could slippe from his labour, nay the most honest of them in a generall businesse, would not take so much faithfull and true paines, in a weeke, as now he will doe in a day, neither cared they for the increase, presuming that howsoever their harvest prospered, the generall store must maintain them, by which meanes we reaped not so much corne from the labours of 30 men, as three men have done for themselves: to prevent which mischiefe heereafter Sir Thomas Dale hath taken a new course, throughout the whole Colony, by which meanes, the generall store (apparell onely excepted) shall not be charged with any thing: and this it is, he hath allotted to every man in the Colony, three English Acres of cleere Corne ground, which every man is to mature and tend, being in the nature of Farmers, (the Bermuda undertakers onely excepted) and they are not called unto any service or labor belonging to the Colony, more then one moneth in the yeere, which shall neither be in seede time, or in Harvest, for which, doeing no other duty to the Colony, they are yearly to pay into the store two barrells and a halfe of Corne: there to be reserved to keep new men, which shall be sent over, the first yeere after their arrivall: and even by this meanes I dare say, our store will be bountifully furnished, to maintain three or foure hundred men, whensoever they shall be sent thither to us, that money which hitherto hath bin disbursed, to provide a twelve moneths victualls, if there were but now D halfe so much bestowed in clothes, and bedding, will be such comfort to the men, as even thereby the lives of many shall not onely be preserved, but also themselves kept in strength and heart, able to performe such businesses, as shall be imposed upon them: and thus shall also the former charge be well saved, and yet more businesse effected, the action renowned, and more commodity returned to the Merchant, and yet faint for want of encouragement.

Concerning the undertaking of the Bermuda City, a businesse of greatest hope, ever begunne in our Territories there, their Pattent, which I purpose in this Treatise to insert, doth apparantly demonstrate, upon what termes and conditions they voluntarily have undertaken that imployment, how forward that businesse is, in his due place shall bee expressed, onely give me leave with as much brevity as I may, least any man should divert his minde, and be fearefull to adventure his person thither, for feare of famine and penury, to amplifie a little the plenty there for if it be true, as most certaine it is, that those whom I have described under the title of Farmers can pay into our Store, two barrels and a halfe of Corne yeerely, and others who labour eleven moneths in the generall businesse of the Colony, and but one to provide themselves victualls, why should any man (if he be industrious) mistrust starving? If otherwise, for any part, and I thinke all that are engaged in the Action, and understand the businesse, accord with me heerein, and would not with his company there, nay they shall much wrong themselves, and the Action, if they doe not withstand such, and deny them passage: for even they and none else have been the occasions of the manifold imputations, & disgraces, which Virginia hath innocently undergone, through their defaults: I would therefore by these relations not onely encourage honest and industrious: but also deterre all lassie, impotent, and ill livers from addressing themselves thither, as being a Country too worthy for them and altogeather disconsonant to their natures, which must either brooke labour or hazard, and undergoe much displeasure, punishment, and penury, if they escape a thing which few idlers have don, the scurvy disease, with which few, or none once infected, have recovered.

To proceed therefore in my incouragement to painefull people, such as either through crodes in this world, or wract rents, or else great charge of children and family live heer, and that not without much care and sweat, into extreame poverty: for those this Country hath present remedy: Everie such person, so well disposed to adventure thither shall soon find the difference between their own and that Country. The affaires in the Colony, being so well ordered, and the hardest taskes already overpast, that whosoever (now, or heerafter) shall happily arrive there, shall find a handsome howse of some foure roomes or more, if he have a family, to repose himselfe in rent freee, and twelve English Acres of ground, adjoyning thereunto, very strongly impailed, which ground is onely allotted unto him for Roots, Gardaine hearbs, and Corne: neither shall hee need to provide himselfe, as were wont the first planters, of a yeers provision of victualls, for that the store there will bee able to affoord him, & upon these conditions he shall be entertained; He shall have for himselfe & family, a competent 13 months provision delivered unto him, in which time it must bee his care to provide for himselfe and family ever after, as those already there, to this end he shall be furnished with necessary tooles of all sorts, and for his better subsistence he shall have Poultry, and swine, and if D2 he deserve it, a Goate or two, perhaps a Cow given him, which once compast, how happily he may live, as doe many there, who I am sure will never returne, I submit to their own future well experienced judgements.

Now, least any man should yet rest discouraged because as yet no mention is made of any other provision of victualls, save onely of bread-corne, which graunt, it may with labour be competently procured, will affoord but a bare, and miserable living, I thinke there is no man so ignorant to conceive, that such a main continent as is Virginia, boundlesse, for ought we have discovered, and so goodly Rivers, no where else to be parralled, should be more barraine of Cattell, Fish and Foule, then other Lands, assuredly they are not: for true it is, that the Land is stored with plenty and variety of wilde beasts, Lions, Bears, Deere of all sorts, (onely differing from ours in their increase, having usuall, three or foure Fawnes at a time, none that I have seen or heard off under two: the reason whereof som of our people ascribe to the virtue of some grasse or hearb which they eate, because our Goats often times bring foorth three, and most of them two: for my part I rather impute their fecundiry to the providence of God, who for every mouth provideh meate, and if this increase were not, the Naturalls would assuredly starve: for of the Deere, (they kill as doe wee Beefs in England) all the yeer long, neither sparing yong nor olde, no not the Does readie to fawne, nor the yong fawnes, if but two daies ould) Beavers, Otters, Foxes, Racounes, almost as big as a Fox, as good meat as a lamb, hares, wild Cats, muske rats, Squirells flying, and other of three or four sorts, Apossumes, of the bignesse and likenesse of a Pigge, of a moneth ould, a beast of as strange as incredible nature, she hath commonly seven yong ones, sometimes more and sometimes lesse which at her pleasure till they be a month old or more she taketh up into her belly, and putteth forth againe without hurt to her selfe or them.

Of each of these beasts, the Lion excepted, my self have many times eaten, and can testifie that they are not onely tastefull, but also wholesome and nourishing foode.

There are foule of divers sorts, Eagles, wilde Turkeis much bigger then our English Cranes, Herons white and ruffet, Hawkes, wilde Pigeons (in winter beyond number or imagination, my self have seen three or foure houres together flockes in the aire, so thicke that even they have shaddowed the skie from us) Turckie Buzzards, Partridge, Snipes, Owles, Swans, Geese, Brants, Ducke, and Mallard, Droeis, Shel Drakes Cormorants, Teale, Widgeon, Curlewes, Puits, besides other small birds, as Blacke-birde, hedge sparrowes, Oxeies, wood peckers, and in winter about Christmas many flockes of Parakertoths.

For fish the Rivers are plentifully stored, with Sturgeon Porpasse, Base, Rockfish, Carpe, Shad, Herring, Ele, Catfish, Perch, Flat-fish, Troute, Sheepes-Head, Drummers, Jarfish, Crevises, Crabbes, Oysters and diverse other kinds, of all which my self have seen great quantity taken, especially the last summer at Smiths Island, at one hale, a frigots lading of Sturgion, Base and other great fish in Captaine Argals Savie: and even at that very place which is not above fifteene miles from Pointeomfort, if we had been furnished with salt, to have saved it, wee might have taken as much fish as would have served us that whole yeere.

Not are these provicion of bread, flesh, and fish, al we have for sustenation of mans life, behold more change and variety of foode, which our soile and climate affordeth, Carrats, Parsneps, Turneps, Raddish, D3pumpions (of the West Indies kinde in great abundance, of one seede I have seen an hundreth, much better then ours and lasting all the yeere) Cabbage, Parsley, all the manner of pothearbs and other hearbes, Margerum, Time, winter-Savory, Lettice Purslaine, &c, and besides the naturall graine of that Country as wheate pease and beanes, it did me much good to view our English wheate how forward it was, full eard, of one graine forty eares or more, a span long, and onely wanting ripening in mid June, our English pease then ripe, and beanes very forward, and English barly very hopefull, such as mine eies never beheld better in England: And if that soile bring for the these things (as can those which have bin there with me affirme and witnesse) as plentifull and unchangeable for taste and quantity as England or any other country, why should any man that hath his limbes, in a peaceable state as is that, so much as dreame of starving?

To goe yet a little further, I my selfe know no one Country yeelding without art or industry so manie fruites, sure I am England doth: wilde grapes in abundance al the woods over, their juice sweete and pleasant in taste, some of them wee have replanted in a vineyard adjoyning to Henrico, the quality of three or foure Akres which were this yeare very plentifully laden, to what perfection they will come, the next returne will advertise: Cherries little inferior to ours, which if replanted may proove as much better as now they are worse Pissmienplums in bygnes and fashion like a Medlar of a flipticke quality, other sorts of plummes like to our wheat plums, and in goodnes answerable: great fields and woods abounding with Strawberies much fairer and more sweete then ours, Mulberries of great bignesse, and about the Bermuda Cittie and Hundrids thereunto belonging great store thereof, Maricocks of the fashion of a Lemmon whose blossome may admit comparison with our most delightsome and bewtifull flowers, and the fruite exceeding pleasant and tastfull: Chesnut- trees towards the fals as many as oakes, and as fertile, many goodly groves of Chincomen trees with a huske like unto a Chesnut, raw or boyled, luscious and harty meates. Walnuts of three or foure forts, where of there might be yeerely made great quantity of oyles, as usefull and good as that of Olives: some filberds I have seen, Crabbes great store, lesse, but not so sower as ours, which grafted with the Siens of English aple trees, without question would beare very good fruite, and we doubt not but to have the Siens enough the next yeere, there being in Sir Thomas Gates his garden at Jamestown, many forward apple & peare trees come up, of the kernels set the yeere before.

If all this be not sufficient, loe further incouragement, the colony is already furnished with two hundred neate cattell, as many goates, infinite hogges in heards all over the woods, besides those to everie towne belonging in generall, and every private man, some Mares, Horses & Colts, Poultry great store, besides tame Turkeis, Peacockes and Pigeons plentifully increasing and thriving there, in no Countrie better.

Of our yong Steeres the next winter we doubt not to have three or foure Ploughes going, which once compast, we shall in short time be able to repay England the corne they have lent us.

If I knew yet any further impediments which might seeme to give discouragement to adventure thither, I should as easily remove them.

Object that pleaseth the want of cloathes, so long as there are wilde beasts there, and the beasts have skinnes on their backs (if the necessity were such) why should not we as doe the naturals, cloath our selves therewith, it is no worse then our fore-fathers have worne before us, and such as will save us from the colde in winter, and heate in summer: but admit there were no skinnes or being there, our people disdaine to weare them. If there be any man that hath beene so ill an husband here that he cannot furnish himselfe with a yeeres provision of apparell; if I might counsel he should not be suffered to go thither, for that country is not for him, as for others who can provide apparrell for the first yeer, I holde him a worse husband then the former, that shall at any time after be worse cloathed then he went over: the valuable commoditie of Tobacco of such esteeme in England (if there were nothing else) which every man may plant, and with the least part of his labour, tend and care will returne him both clothes and other necessaries. For the goodnesse whereof, answerable to est-Indie Trinidado or Craeus (admit there hath no such bin returned) let no man doubt. Into the discourse whereof, since I am obviously entred, I may not forget the gentleman, worthie of much commendations, which first tooke the pains to make trial thereof, his name Mr. John Rolfe, Anno Domini 1612 partly for the love he hath a long time borne unto it, and partly to raise commodity to the adventurers, in whole behalfe I witnesse and vouchsafe to holde my testimony in beleefe, that during the time of his abroade there, which draweth neere upon six yeeres, no man hath laboured to his power, by good example there and worthy incouragement into England by his letters, then he hath done, witnes his mariage with Powhatans daughter, one of rude education, manners barbarous and cursed generation, meerely for the good and honour of the Plantation: and least any man should conceive that some sinister respects allured him hereunto, I have made bold con- trary to his knowledge in the end of my treatise to insert the true coppie of his letter, written to Sir Thomas Dale to acquaint him with his proceedings, and purpose therein, the rather to give testimony to the misconstruing and ill censuring multitude of his integritie, in the undertaking a matter of great a consequent, who in my hearing have not spared to speak their pleasures; his owne letter hits them home, and the better sort, who know to censure judiciously cannot by highly commend and approve so worthy an undertaking.

Thus farre I have applied my self to incourage personal Adventurers: I would gladly now by worthy motives, allure the heavie undertakers to persist with alacritie and cheerefulness, both for their owne reputations, the honour of God, and their King and Country. The worthier sort, I meane those Nobles and others of that honourable counsel interessed therein, neede no spurre, their owne innate vertues drives them a pace. The Merchant onely wants some feeling and present returne of those commodities which he is perswaded the country affordeth; to them therefore I will addresse my speech, and if I may perswade them to be constant in their proceedings, some small time longer, the benefit will be the greater and the more welcome when it commeth.

It is not for nothing Sir Thomas Dale, so noble without respect to his living, to his Lady here in England, past the prefixed time of his resolved return, yet remaineth there; I am sure if he pleased he might return with as much honour as any man from thence, I say no more.

I shall little neede, and indeede it were but wast and Idle for me to repeate and mention the commodities, which with onely labour may be there procured; many Treatises hath them at full. Sam-E ples have beene sent home, and no man disputeth the goodnes, or the quantitie there to be had: take therefore double courage to your selves, and let those two yeeres neglect be restored by a cheerefull and new onset, and for your incouragement reade yet a little further, and view the face of the Colony, even superficially portraide: see what effects these three yeeres have wrought.

In May 1611 Sir Thomas Dale, with a prosperous passage, not full eight weekes arrived there, with him about three hundred people, such as for the present speede, and dispatch could then be provided, of worse condition then those formerly there, who I sorrow to speake it, were not so provident, though once before bitten with hunger and pennury, as to put corne into the ground for their winters bread, but trusted to the store, then furnished but with eight months provisió. His first care therefore was to imploy al-hands about setting of Corne at the two Forts, seated upon Kecoughtan, Henry and Charles, whereby the season then not fully past, thogh, about the end of May, we had there an indifferent Crop of good corn.

This businesse taken order for, and the care and trust of it committed to his under officers, to James Towne he hastened, where the most company were, and the daily and usuall workers, bowling in the streetes, these he imployed about necessary workes, as selling of timber, repairing their houses ready to fall upon their heads, and providing pales, posts and railes to impaile his purposed new Towne, which by reason of his ignorance in those parts, but newly arrived there, he had not resolved where to seate. For his better knowledge therefore of those parts, himself with an hundreth men, spent some time in discovery, first Nansammand River, which in dispight of the Indians, then our enemies, he discovered to the head after that, our owne River, to the fals, whereupon a high land invironed with the mayn River, some fifteene or twentie miles, from the head of the Fals, neere to an Indian Towne called Arsahattocke, he resolved to plant his new Towne, and so did, where of in his due place shall I make a briefe relation.

It was no meane trouble to him, to reduce his people, so timely to good order, being of so il a condition as may well witnesse his severe and strict imprinted booke of Articles, then needefull with all severity and extremity to be executed, now much mitigated, for more deserved death in those daies, then do now the least punishment, so as if the law should not have restrained by execution, I see not how the utter subversion and ruine of a Colony should have bin presented, witnesse Webbes and Prises designe the first yeere, since that Abbots and others more daungerous then the former, and even this summer, Coles and Kitchins Plot, with three more, bending their course towards the Southward, to a Spanish Plantation, reported to be there, who had travelled (it being now a time of peace) some five days daies jorney to Ocanahoen, there cut off by certaine Indians, hired by us to hunt them home to receive their deserts. So as Sir Thomas Dale hath not bin tyranous, nor severe at all; Indeede the offences have bin capitall, and the offenders dangerous, incurable members, for no use so fit as to make examples to others, but the manner of their death may some object, hath bin cruell, unusual and barbarous, which indeede they have not bin, witnesse of France, and other Countries for lesse offences: what if they have bin more severe then usuall in England, there was just cause for it, we were rather to have regard to those whom we would have terrified, and made fearefull to commit the like offences, then to the offenders justly condemned, It being true that E2 amongst those people (who for the most part are sencible onely one of the bodies torment) the feare of a cruell, painfull and unusuall, death, more restrains them then death it self.

Thus much obviously, I proceede in his indeavors until Sir Thomas Gates his happie arrivall, which was onely in preparing timber, pales, posts and railes for the present impaling this new Towne to secure himselfe and men from the mallice and trechery of the Indians, in the midst and hart of whom, he was resolved to set downe, but before he could make himselfe ready for that businesse, Sir Thomas Gates though his passage more long than usuall, to second him herein, happily arrived about the second of August, with sixe good Shippes, men, provisions and cattle, whom as yet not fully discovered, we supposed to be a Spanish fleete, thus induced the rather to beleeve, because in company with him were three Carvals, vessels which never before had bin sent thither, and now onely for the transportation of the Cattle. It did mee much good, and gave great courage to the whole company to see the resolution of Sir Thomas Dale, now wholy busied (our land fortications to weake to withstand a forraigne Enemy) in lading our provisions aboard the two good Shippes, the Starre and Prosperous, and our own Deliverance, then riding before James town, aboarde which Shippes, he had resolved to encounter the supposed Enemy, animating his people, not onely with the hope of victory if they readily obeied his direction, but also assuring them that if by these meanes God had ordained to set a period to their lives, they could never be sacrificed in a more acceptable service, himselfe promising, rather to fire the Spanish Shippes with his own, then either basely to yeelde, or to be taken; and in nothing he seemed so much discontent as that we could not possibly lade a- boarde all our provisions before (the winde being then very faire) they might have bin with us, whilest therefore the rest were labouring their utmost to lade aboarde our provisions, hee caused a small shallop to be manned with thirty readie and good shot to discover directly what Shippes they might be, and withall speede to returne him certaine word, which within three houres they did, assuring him that is was an English fleete, Sir Thomas Gates Generall thereof: which newes how welcome it was unto him, principally because now he doubted not the happie progression of the affaires in hand, let any man (equally with him affected to the good and welfare of the action) judge and determine.

The worthies being met, after salutation and welcome given, and received, Sir Thomas Dale acquainted Sir Thomas Gates both with such businesses as he had affected since his arrivall, and also of his resolutions to builde a new Towne, at the Fales, which designe and purpose of his, Sir Thomas Gates then principall Governour in Virginia, well approving, furnished him with three hundred and fiftie men, such as himselfe made choise of, and the beginning of September 1611 he set from James town, and in a day & a halfe, landed at a place where he purposed to seate & builde, where he had not bin ten daies before he had very strongly impaled seven English Acres of ground for a towne, which in honour of the noble Prince Henrie (of ever happie and blessed memory, whose royall heart was ever strongly affected to that action) he called by the name of Henrico. No sooner was he thus fenced, and in a manner secured from the Indians, but his next worke (without respect to his owne health or particular welfare) was building at each corner of the towne, very strong and high commanders or watch-towers, a faire and handsome Church, and storehou-,E3 fes which finished he began to thinke upon convenient houses, and lodging for himselfe and men, which with as much speede as was possible, were more strongly and more handsome then any formerly in Virginia, contrived and finished, and even in foure months space, he had made Henrico much better and of more worth then all the work ever since the Colonie began, therein done.

I should be so tedious if I should give up the accompt of every daies labour, which therefore I purposely omit, and will onely describe the towne, in the very state and perfection wich I left it, and first for the situation, it standes upon a neck of a very high land, 3 parts thereof invironed with the main River, and cut over betweene the two Rivers, with a strong pale, which maketh the neck of land an island. There is in this town 3 streets of well framed howses, a handsom Church, and the foundation of a more stately one laid, of Brick, in length, an hundred foote, and fifty foot wide, beside Store houses, watch houses, and such like: there are also, as ornaments belonging to this Town, upon the verge of this River, five faire Block houses, or commaunders, wherein live the honester sort of people, as in Farmes in England, and there keep continuall centinell for the townes security, and about two miles from the towne into the Main, a Rale of two miles in length, cut over from river to river, garded likewise with severall Commanders, with a great quantity of corne grounde impaled, sufficient if there were no more in the Colony secured, to maintain with but easy manoring, and husbandry, more men, then I suppose, will be addressed thither, (the more is the pitty) these 3 yeeres.

For the further enlargement yet of this Town, on the other side of the River, by impaling likewise: for we make no other fence, is secured to our use, especi- ally for our hogges to feed in, about twelve English miles of ground, by name, Hope in faith, Coxen Dale, secured by five Forts, called, Charity Fort, Mount malado, a retreat, or guest house for sick people, a high feast, and wholesome aire, Elizabeth Fort, and Fort Patience: and heere hath Mr. Whitacres chosen his Parsonage, or Church land, som hundred Acres impaled, and a faire framed parsonage house built thereupon, called Rocke Hall of this Towne, and all the Forts thereunto belonging, hath Captaine James Davis, the Principall Commaunde, and Government.

I proceed to our next and most hopefull habitation, whether we respect commodity, or security, (which we principally aime at) against forraigne designes, and invasions, I meane the Bermuda Citty, begun about Christmas last, which because it is the neerest adjoyning to Henrico, though the last undertaken, I hould it pertinent to handle in the next place. This Towne, or plantation is seated by land, some 5 miles from Henrico, by water fourteene, being the yeer before the habitation of the Appamatneks, to revenge the trecherous injurie of those people, done unto us taken from them, besides all their Corne, the former before without the losse of any, save onely some few of those Indians, pretending our hurt) at what time Sir Thomas Dale, being himself upon that service, and duly considering how commodious a habitation and feat it might be for us, tooke resolutions to possesse and plant it, and at that very instant, gave it the name of the new Bermudas, whereunto he hath laid out, and annexed to be belonging to the freedome, and corporation forever, many miles of Champion, and woodland, in severall Hundreds, as the upper and nether Hundreds, Rochdale hundred, WestSherly Hundred, and Digges his hundred In the nether hundred he first began to plant, and inhabite for that there lyeth the most convenient quantity of Corne ground and with a Pale cut over from, River to River, about two miles long, wee have secured some eight miles circuit of ground, the most part champion, and exceeding good Corne ground, upon which pale, and round about, upon the verge of the River in this Hundred, halfe a mile distant from each other, are vey faire houses, already builded, besides divers other particular mens houses, not so few as fifty, according to the conditions of the patent graunted them, which who so pleaseth to pursue, shall in the end of my discourse finde it inserted. In this Plantation next to Sir Thomas Dale is principal, in the Commaund, Captaine Georg Yardley, Sir Thomas Gates his lieftenaunt, whose endeavours have ever deserved worthy commendations in that imployment, Rochdale Hundred by a crosse pale, well nigh foure miles long, is also already impaled, with bordering houses all along the pale, in which Hundred our hogges, and other cattell have twenty miles circuit to graze in securely. The undertaking of the chiefe Citty deferred till their Harvest be in, which once reaped, all hands shall be imployed thereon, which Sir Thomas Dale purposeth, and he may with some labour effect his designes, to make an impregnable retreat, against any forraign invasion, how powerfull so ever.

About fifty miles from this seat, on the other side of the Rivers, is James towne situate, upon a goodly and fertile island: which although formerly scandoled with unhealthfull aire, we have since approved as healthful as any other place in the country: and this I can say by mine own experience, that that corn and gardaine ground (which with much labour being when we first seated upon it, a thick wood) we have cleered, and impaled, is as fertile as any other we have had experience and triall off. The Towne it selfe by the care and providence of Sir Thomas Gates, who for the most part had his chiefest residence there, is reduced into a hansome forme, and hath in it two faire rowes of howses, all of framed Timber, two stories, and an upper Garret, or Corne loft, high, besides three large, and substantiall Store Houses, joyned together in length some hundred and twenty foot, and in breadth forty, and this town hath been lately newly, and strongly impaled, and a faire platforme for Ordenance in the west Bulwarke raised: there are also without this towne in the Island, some very pleasaut, and beautifull howses, two Blockhouses, to observe and watch least the Indians at any time should swim over the back river, and come into the Island, and certain other farme houses. The commaund and government of this town, hath master John Scarpe, Listenant to Captain Francis West, brother to the right Honourable, the Lord Lawarre.

From James towne downewards, some forty and odde miles at the mouth of the river, neer Point Comsant, upon Kecoughtan, are two pleasant and commodious Forts, Henrie and Charles, goodly seats, and much corne ground about them, abounding with the commodities of fish, fowle, Deere, and fruits, where by the men live there, with halfe that maintenaunce out of the Store, which in other places is allowed: certainly this habitation would bee no whit inferiour to the best we have there, save, as yet, with the poor meanes we have; we cannot secure it, if a forraigne enemy, as we have just cause to expect daily should attempt it. And of these Forts, Captain Georg Web was lately established the principall Commander. F

It hath been our greatest care, and labour hitherto, and yet but these three yeers the former four meerely mispent, to compasse these businesses, which being thus setled, and brought to such perfection, as I have described, now doth the time approach, that commodity may be expected, and if meanes bee sent over, will assuredly be returned. What honest spirit, having hitherto laboured herein, would at the upshot (as I may so term it) be discouraged or desist? I hope none, rather more will be animated, (if need require) to put too their helping hands and purses.

And even thus I have shaddowed I hope, without the guilt of tedious, or prolix discourses (as I have been able) the trne condition (though many circumstances omitted) of Virginia, what may the substance be, when the externall shew is so forward, so glorious.

I have purposely omitted the relation of the Contry commodities, which every former treatise hath abundantly, the hope of the better mines, the more base, as Iron, Allom, and such like, Perfectly discovered, and made triall off, and surely of these things I cannot make so ample relation, as others, who in the discovery of those affaires, have bin, then my self more often conversant, onely of the hopefull, and merchantable commodities of tobacco, silke grasse, and silke worms: I dare thus much affirme, and first of Tobacco, whose goodnesse mine own experience and triall induces me to be such, that no country under the Sunne, may, or doth affoord more pleasant, sweet, and strong Tobacco, then I have tasted there, even of mine owne planting, which, however being then the first yeer of our triall thereof, wee had not the knowledge to cure, and make up, yet are there some now resident there, out of the last yeers well observed experience, which both know, and I doubt not, will make, and returne such Tobacco this yeere, that even England shall acknowledge the goodnesse thereof.

Now I proceed to the silke grasse which groweth like unto our flax, I meane not, of that kinde formerly sent over, I have seen, even of the naturall, and wild plants, which Captaine Martin, who much delighteth in those businesses, hath made, exceeding fine, and exceeding strong silke, and himselfe hath replanted many of the wilde plants this yeere, the silke whereof he purposeth to return for trial.

The silke wormes sent thither from England, in seeds the last winter, came foorth many of them the beginning of March, and others in Aprill, Maye, and June, thousands of them grown to great bignesse, and a spinning, and the rest well thriving of their increase, and commodity well knowne to be reaped by them, we have all most assurance (since sure I am) no Country affoordeth more store of Mulbery trees, or a kind with a whose leafe they more delight, or thrive better.

It may be heere happily expected, that I should give up the relation of Captaine <Argall > s particular voyages and indeavours, and even as in a Plat, demonstrate his Norward discoveries, from which businesse I desire to be execused, partly, because himselfe is best able to make his owne relations, and partly, because my home imployments would not permit me leisure to accompany him, though my selfe desirous, in any of his voyages, whose endeavours, if I should indeavour to make knowne, and publish, could receive no honour at all by my commendations, or descriptions: much might they be impaired, through my ignorance, or unskillfullnes to set them foorth: yet cannot omit to publish to the world, what present reliefe he hath don to the Colony, fur- F2nishing us by two trading voyages, with three and twenty hundred bushels of Corne, into our store delivered: beside, what he reserved for his mens provision, what he bestowed upon well deservers, and what his man appropriated.

I pass by the benefit of peace in those parts, by reason of his Captive Pochahuntus, concluded established, and will onely name the commoditie by his meanes done unto us, in repairing of our weatherbeaten boats, and furnishing us with new, both strong, and useful, without whose assistance herein, unless we should have omitted other necessary imployments, I see not how we should have had passage one to another.

His Norward discoveries towards Sacadehoc, and beyond to Portroyall, Sanita Crux, and thereabout may not be concealed: in which his adventures, if he had brought home no commodity to the Colony, (which yet he did very much, both of apparrell, victualls, and many other necessaries) the honour which he hath done unto our Nation, by displanting the French, there beginning to seate & fortifie within our limits, and taking of their Ship and Pinnas, which he brought to James Towne, would have been reward enough for his paines, and will ever speake loud his honour, and approved valour.

I have heard it credibly reported, even from the mouth of Captaine <Argall > , that in one small Shippe, and in one voyage, the French have cleered eight thousand pounds by trade with the Indians, for furs, which benefit will be as easily by us procured.

It is true the Salvadges there inhabiting (before Captaine <Argall > s arrival) esteemed the French as Demy-Gods, and had them in greate estimation: but seeing them vanquished and overcom by us, forsook them, yea which is no meane point of policy, desi-red our friendship, telling Captaine <Argall > , that hee had undone them for ever, for that the French by yeerely trade with them for Furres, furnished them with many necessaries, whereof they had great want, which trade by this meanes might happily be hindered. But Captaine <Argall > hath agreed with them to reserve their Furres for him, and promised them, once a yeere to come thither, and truck with them: they seemed very well content, assuring him, that though the French should at any time arrive there, and proffer them trade, they would reserve all their Furs for him, and what profit by this meanes onely, may be returned to the Virginia adventurers, I submit to Captaine <Argall > s owne opinion and judgement.

I purposely omitted one thing in the Treatise of our concluded peace, where with I intend to conclud my discourse, which already I have drawne to a longer period than I purposed, whereby wee have gathered the better assurances, of their honest inward intentions, and this it is.

It pleased Sir Thomas Dale (my selfe being much desirous before my returne for England, to visit Powhatan, & his Court, because I would be able to speak somwhat thereof by mine own knowledge) to employ my selfe, and an english boy for my Interpreter on Thomas Salvage (who had lived three yeers with Powhatan, and speakes the language naturally, one whom Powhatan much affecteth) upon a message unto him, which was to deale with him, if by any meanes I might procure a daughter of his, who (Pochahantas being already in our possession) is generally reported to be his delight, and darling, and surely he esteemeth her as his owne soule) for surer pledge of peace.

I departed the fifteenth of May early in the mor-,ning with the English Boy, and two Indian guides, from the Bermudas, and came to his court or residence (as I judge some three score miles distant from us, being seated at the head almost of Pamannkie River, at a towne called MarchCot) the next night after, about twelve of the clocke, the former night lodging in the open woods, feareles and without danger: when we were come opposite to his Towne, the main river betweene him and us, least at any time we should martch by land unto him undiscovered: my Indian guides called for a Canoa (a boate made onely of one tree, after the fashion of a hollow trough) to transport us, giving them to know that there was two English sent upon businesse to Powhatan from the English Weroance, which once knowne, a Canoa was presently sent, and we ferried over, Powhatan himself attending at the landing place to welcome us.His first salutation was to the Boy, whom he very wel remembered, after this manner: my childe you are welcome, you have bin a stranger to me these foure yeeres, at what time I gave you leave to go to Palpahae (for so was James towne called before our seating there) to see your friends, and till now you never returned: you (said he) are my child, by the donative of Captaine Newport, in liew of one of my subjects Namontacke, who I purposely sent to King James his land, to see him and his country, and to returne me the true report thereof, he as yet is not returned, though many ships have arrived here from thence, since that time, how ye have delt with him I know not? having thus ended his speech to him, he addressed himself to me, and his first salutation, without any words at all, was about my necke, and with his hand he feeled round about it, so as I might have imagined he would have cut my throate, but that I knew he durst not, he asked me where the chaine of pearle was, I demaunded what chaine: that said he, which I sent my Brother Sir Thomas Dale for a present, at his first arrivall: which chaine, since the peace concluded, he sent me word, if he sent any Englishman upon occasion of busines to me, he should weare about his neck, otherwise I had order from him to binde him and send him home againe. It is true Sir Thomas Dale had sent him such word (which till then my selfe never heard of) and for this purpose had given his Page order to deliver me the said chaine, who forgot it: I was doubtfull at the first how to answere him, yet presently I replied that I was not ignorant of that message from his brother, formerly sent unto him, whereby he onely entended that if upon extraordinary and sudden occasion, he should be constrained to send an English man unto him without an Indian guide, then in testimony that he sent him hee should weare the chaine about his necke: but in case any of his owne people should conduct any English unto him, as did me, two of his owne men, one of them a Counceller unto him, who was acquainted with my businesse, their testimony should be sufficient, and the chaine then needelesse to be worne, which answer pleased him well, and fourthwith he brought us to his house, not full a stones cast from the waterside, whereinto being come, himselfe sat downe on his bedsteade side, bed there was none more then a single mat, on each hand of him was placed a comely and personable young woman, not twenty yeeres old the eldest, which they call his Queenes, the house with in round about bee set with them, the outside guarded with an hundred bowmen, with their quivers of arrowes at their backes, which at all times, & places attend his person.

The first thing hee offered us was a pipe of Tobacco, which they called Piffimore, whereof himselfe first dranke, and then gave it to me, and when I had drank what I pleased, I returned his pipe, which with his owne hands he vouchsafed to take from me: then began he to inquire how his Brother Sir Thomas Dale fared, after that of his daughters welfare, her mariage, his unknowne sonne, and how they liked, lived and loved together: I resolved him that his brother was very well, and his daughter so well content that she would not change her life to returne and live with him, whereat he laughed heartily, and said he was very glad of it. Now proceede (said he) to deliver the cause of your unexpected comming; I certified him my message was private, to be delivered to himselfe, without the presence of any, save one of his Councellers, by name Pepaschicher, one of my guides, who was acquainted with my businesse, he instantly commanded all, both men and women out of the house, his two Queenes onely excepted, who upon no occasion whatsoever, may sequester themselves. Now (said he) speake on, and my selfe by my interpreter thus begun. Sir Thomas Dale your Brother, the principal commander of the English men, sends you greeting of love and peace, on his part inviolable, and hath in testimonie thereof (by me sent you a worthie present, vid, two large peeces of copper, five strings of white and blew beades, five wodden combes, ten fish-hookes, and a paire of knives, all which I delivered him, one thing after another, that he might have time to view each particular: He willed me also to certifie you, that when you pleased to send men, he would give you a great grinding stone: my message and gift hitherto pleased him, I proceeded thus. The bruite of the exquisite perfection of your yongest daughter, being famous through all your territories, hath come to the hearing of your Brother Sir Thomas Dale, who for this purpose hath addressed me hi-, to intreate you by that brotherly friendship you make profession of, to permit her (with me) to returne unto him, partly for the desire which himselfe hath, and partly for the desire her sister hath to see her of whom, if fame hath not bin prodigall, as like enough it hath not, your brother (by your favour) would gladly make his neerest companion, wife and bedfellow (many times he would have interrupted my speech, which I intreated him to heare out, and then if he pleased to returne me answere) and the reason hereof is, because being now friendly and firmely united together, and made one people (as he supposeth and beleeves) in the band of love, he would make a naturall union between us, principally because himselfe hath taken resolution to dwel in your country so long as he liveth, and would therefore not only have the firmest assurance hee may, of perpetuall friendship from you, but also hereby binde himself thereunto.

When I had thus made an end of speaking; the sooner by his often interruption, I had no neede to require his answere; which readily, and with no lesse gravity he returned thus.

I gladly accept your Kings salute of love & peace, which while I live I shall exactly, both my selfe and subjects maintaine and conserve: his pledges thereof I receive with no lesse thankes, albeit they are not so ample; howbeit himselfe a greater Weroance, as formerly Captaine Newport, whom I very well love, was accustomed to gratifie me with. But to the purpose, my daughter whom my brother desireth, I sould within a these few daies to be wife to a great Weroance for two bushels of Roanoake (a small kinde of beades) made of oystershels, which they use and passe one to another, as we doe money (a cubites length valuing sixe pence) and it is true she is already gone with him, Gthree daies jorney from me. I replied that I knew his greatnesse and power to be such, that if he pleased heerein to gratifie his Brother hee might, restoring the Roanoke without the imputation of injustice, take hoame his daughter againe, the rather because she was not full twelve yeeres old, and therefore not marriageable: assuring him beside the band of peace, so much the firmer he should have treble the prise of his daughter, in beades, Copper, Hatchets and many other things more usefull for him? His answere hereunto was, that he loved his daughter as deere as his own life, and though he had many Children, he delighted in none so much as in her, whom if he should not often beholde, he could not possibly live, which she living with us he knew he could not, having with himselfe resolved upon no termes whatsoever to put himselfe into our hands, or come amongst us, and therefore intreated me to urge that suite no further, but returne his brother this answer.

I desire no firmer assurance of his friendship, then his promise which he hath already made unto mee: from me, he hath a pledge, one of my daughters, which so long as she lives shall be sufficient, when she dieth he shall have another childe of mine, but she yet liveth: I holde it not a brotherly part of your King, to desire to bereave me of two of my children at once; further give him to understand, that if he had no pledge at all he should not neede to distrust any injurie from me, or any under my subjection, there have bin too many of his and my men killed, and by my occasion there shall never bee more, I which have power to performe it, have said it: no not though I should have just occasion offered, for I am now olde, and would gladly end my daies in peace, so as if the English offer me injury, my country is large enough, I will remove my selfe farther from you. Thus much I hope will satisfie my brother. Now because yourselves are wearie, and I sleepie, we will thus end the discourse of this businesse. Then called he one of his men, and willed him to get some bread for us, himselfe the meane while telling us that they not expected our comming, as usually they doe eate up all their other victnals, presently the bread was brought in two great wodden bowls, the quantity of a bushel sod breade made up round, of the bignesse of a tenise ball, where of we eate some few, and disposed the rest to many of his hungrie guarde which attended about us: when we had eaten he caused to be fetched a great glasse of sacke, some three quarts or better, which Captain Newport had given him sixe or seaven yeers since, carefully preserved by him, not much above a pint in all this time spent, and gave each of us in a great oyster shell some three spoonefulls; and so giving order to one of his people to appoint us a house to lodge in, took his leave for that night, and we departed. We had not bin halfe an houre in the house before the fleas began so to torment us that wee could not rest there, but went forth, and under a broade oake, upon a mat reposed our selves that night no sooner were we awakt and up in the morning, but Powhatan himself came to us, and asked us how we fared, and immediately led us to his house, where was provided for our breakfast a great bole of Indian pease and beanes boyled together, and as much bread as might have sufficed a dosen hungry men, about an houer after boyled fresh fish, and not long after that roasted Oysters, Crevices and Crabbes: his men in this time being abroade a hunting some venison, others Turkeis and such like beasts and foules as their woods afforde, who returned before ten of the clocke with three does and a bucke, very good and fat venison, and two great cocke Turkeis, all which G2were dressed that day, and supper ended, scarce a bone to be seene.

While I yet remained there, by great chaunce came an English man thither, almost three yeeres before that time surprised, as he was at worke neer Fort Henrie, one William Parker growen so like both in complexion and habite to the Indians, that I onely knew him by his tongue to be an Englishman, he seemed very joyfull so happily to meete me there. Of him when we often inquired, the Indians ever tolde us that he fell sicke and died, which till now we beleeved he intreated me to use my best indeavours to procure his returne, which thing I was purposed so soone as I knew him, and immediately went with him to Powhatan, and told him that we credibly beleeved that he was dead, but since it was otherwise I must needes have him home, for my selfe of necessitie must acquaint his brother that I had seene him there: who if he returned not, would make another voyage thither purposely for him: Powhatan seemed very much discontent, and thus replied. You have one of my daughters with you, and I am therewith well content, but you can no sooner see or know of any English mans being with me, but you must have him away, or else breake peace and friendship: If you must needes have him, he shal goe with you, but I will send no guides along with you, so as if any ill befall you by the way, thanke your selves. I answered that rather then I would goe without him, I would goe alone, the way I knew well enough, and other daungers I feared not, since if I returned not safely, he must expect our revenge upon him and his people, giving him further to know, that his brother our king might have just occasion to distrust his love to him, by his flight respect of me, if he returned mee home without guides. He replied not hereunto, but in passion and discontentment from me, not till suppertime speaking any more unto me: when sending for me, he gave me share of such cates as were for himself provided, and as good aspect and countenance as before; but not a word concerning my returne, till himself at midnight comming to me, and the boy where we lay awaked us, and told me that Pepaschechar and another of his men, in the morning should accompany us home, earnestly requesting me to remember his brother to send him these particulars. Ten peeces of Copper, a shaving knife, an iron frow to cleave bordes, a grinding stone, not so bigge but four or five men may carry it, which would be big enough for his use, two bone combes, such as Captaine Newport had given him; the wodden ones his own men can make: an hundred fish- hookes or if he could spare it, rather a fishing saine, and a cat, and a dogge, with which things if his brother would furnish him, he would requite his love with the return of skinnes: wherewith he was now altogether unfurnished (as he tolde me) which yet I knew hee was well stored with, but his disposition mistrustfull and jealous, loves to be on the surer hand.

Whé he had delivered this his message, he asked me if I will remembered every particular, which I must repeat to him for his assurance, & yet still doubtful that I might forget any of them, he bade me write them downe in such a Table book as he shewed me, which was a very fair one, I desired him, it being of no use to him, to give it mee: but he tolde me, it did him much good to shew it to strangers which came unto him: so in mine owne Table booke, I wrot downe each particular, and he departed.

In the morning, himselfe and we were timely stirring to be gone: to breakfast first we went, with a good boyled Turkie, which ended, he gave us a G3whole Turkie, besides that we left, and three baskets of bread to carry us home, and when we were ready to depart, hee gave each of us an excellent Bucks skin, very well dressed, and white as snow, and sent his sonne and daughter each of them one, demaunding if I well remembred his answer to his brother, which I repeated to him: I hope (said he) this will give him good satisfaction, if it do not I will goe three daies jorney farther from him, and never see English man more: if upon any other occasion hee sent to me again, I will glady entertain his messengers and to my powre accomplish his just requests: and even thus himselfe conducting us to the water side, he tooke leave of us, and we of him: and about ten of the clock the next night after, we were come to the Bermudas. This discouse I have briefly as I could, and as the matter would permit, the rather related, to make knowne, how charie Powhatan is, of the conservation of peace, a thing much desired, and I doubt not right welcom news, to the undertakers heer) as may appeare by his answeres to my requests, and also by my safe passage thither, & homewards, without the lest shew of injury offred unto us, though divers times by the way, many stragling Indians met us, which in former times, would gladly have taken so faire occasion to worke their mischiefe and bloody designes upon us.By all which, as likewise by our forward progression in our affaires, I hope such good successe and benefit to bee speedily reaped, that my selfe, though I blesse GOD for it, who hath so provided for me, that I may live more happily heere, then many who are fearefull to adventure thither) could even willingly make a third voyage thither if by my poore endeavours the businesse might receive the least furtherance. God, (I hope) will raise up meanes beyond mans imagina-,tion, to perfect his owne glory and honour, in the conversion of those people, of whom undoubtedly, (as in all other parts in the world, he hath predestinated some to eternall salvation, and blessed shall those be that are the instrument thereof) I hope this poor Narration will move every honest heart, to put his helping hand thereunto. For my part, as I have been five yeeres a personall workeman in that building, so shall I ever, as my meanes may permit me, be ready to offer my mite towards the furnishing of others, and againe (if need require) personally labor therein.

To the Reader

There be two properties especially remarkeable, which should move all men earnestly and constantly, with all their meanes and endevour, to desire the acheiving of any thing and bringing of the same unto perfection: first the worth and excellencie: secondly the durablenesse and continuance thereof. For as that thing which is not durable, by reason of fragilitie and fugacitie, is not usually esteemed of men, though it be excellent: so that likewise which is not precious, is worthely little regarded, though it be never so durable. Now the Virginian plantation hath both these notable properties, if at the least we will, and impeach them not our selves; for what is more excellent, more precious and more glorious, then to convert a heathen Nation from worshipping the divell, to the saving knowledge, and true worship of God in Christ Jesus? What more praiseworthy and charitable, then to bring a savage people from barbarisme unto civilitie? what more honourable unto our countrey, then to reduce a far disjoyned forraigne nation, under the due obedience of our dread Souveraigne the Kings Majestie? What more convenient then to have good seates abroade for our ever flowing multitudes of people at home? What more profitable then to purchase great wealth, which most now adaies gape after over-greedily: All which benefits are assuredly to bee had and obtained, by well and plentifully upholding of the plantation in Virginia. And for the durablenesse of all these great and singular blessings, there can (by Gods assistance be no doubt at all made, if mens hearts unto whom God hath lent abilitie) were but inlarged cheerefully to adventure and send good companies of honest industrious men thither with a mind to inlarge Christs kingdome: for then will God assuredly maintaine his owne cause. But alas, as there was never yet any action so good, so honourable, so glorious, so pious and so profitable, but hath had checkes and discouragements, both by open enemies abroade, and intestine adversaries at home with in it owne bowels: even so may I truely say, hath this most glorious most honourable most pious and most profitable enterprise had. For as of old, when Zerubbabbell, Ezra and Nehemia returned from Babell, by allowance of the king of Persia to Jerusalem, and began to repaire the walles thereof and to restore Gods service, there wanted not a Sanballat and others to say: what doe these weake Jews? will they fortifie themselves? will they sacrifice? will they finish it in a day? Noe, for although they builde, yet if a fox go up, he shall even breake downe that stony wall, Even so deale many Snaballates and Tobiahes, forraigne and domesticall enemies of his most religious worke: yea there be many who will not seeme enemies thereunto, but yet will neither further the businesse themselves, no not according to their owne ingagements which in conscience and credite they ought) nor quietly suffer others that otherwise wold, but discourage them therein all they may som saying as Judah once did. The strength of the bearers is weakened, and there is much earth, so as we are not able to builde the wall. Som saying with the unfaithfull Spies, sent forth to search the land of Canaan: The land wee went through to search it out is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof, for all the people we saw in it are strong, and men of great stature: yea and some others say, there is much already expended, and yet no H profit ariseth, neither is there victuals to be had, for the preserving of life and soule together. But oh my deere countrie-men, be not so farre bewitched herewith as to be still discouraged thereat for those that bring a wilde slaúder upon this action, may die by a plague before the Lord, as those men did: but rather remembring your ancient worth, renowne, valour and bounty, harken unto Caleb and Josua, who stillee the peoples mourning: saying, Let us goe up at once and possesse it, for undoubtedly we shall overcome it: yet not so much now by force of arms as the Israelites did then by warrant from God (nor by utterly destroying of them, as some have cruelly done since) as by gentlenesse, love, amity and Religion. As for profit it shall come abundantly, if we can with the husband-man, but freely cast our corne into the ground, and with patience waite for a blessing. And of victuals, there is now no complaint at all, and that which was hapned by the meere lasie negligence of our own people.

Now to the end that you may better perceive these things to be true & be thereby the more animated cheerefully to go forward in the upholding of this holy worke, I will no longer detaine you from the perusall of some Calebs and Josuahs faithfull reports (writ there in June last this present yeere 1614, and sent hither by the last shippe that came thence) for further incouragement to put hereunto speedily & plentifully your helping hands with al alacrity: As for thé that are able, & yet wil not further but indanger the utter ruining of this so glorious a cause (by their miserablenesse (being without love and charitie) to the great dishonour of God, and our Countries perpetuall shame should it now sinke, and fall to the gonnd: I leave them to him that made them, to dispose of them according to his infinite wisdome. And so come to the letters themselves: the first and chiefest whereof is from Sir Thomas Dale, Marshall and Governour of Virginia, unto a Minister of London.

To the R. and my most esteemed friend Mr. D.M. at his house atF.Ch. in London.

Right Reverand Sr. by Sr. Thomas Gates I wrot unto you, of such occasions as then presented themselves, and now again by this worthy Gentleman Captaine <Argall > I salute you: for such is the reverend regard I have of you, as I cannot omit any occasion to express the sincere affection I beare you. You have ever given me encouragements to persever in this religious Warfare, until your last Letters; not for that you are now lesse well affected thereunto: but because you see the Action to bee in danger by many of their non performances who under tooke the businesse. I have undertaken, and have as faithfully, & with all my might indeavoured the prosecution with all allacrity, as God that knoweth the heart, can beare me record, what recompetence, or what rewards, by whom, or when I know not where to expect, but from him in whose vineyard I labor, whose Church with greedy appetite I desire to erect. My glorious master is gone, that would have ennamelled with his favours the labours I undertake, for Gods cause, and his immortall honour. He was the great Captain of our Israell, the hope to have builded up this heavenly new Jerusalem he interred (I think) the whole frame of this businesse, fell into his grave: for most mens forward (at least seeming so) desires are quenched, and Virginia stands in desperate hazard. H2You there do your duties, I will no way omit mine, the time I promised to labour, is expired: it is not a yoke of Oxen hath drawn me from this feast: it is not the marriage of a wife makes me hast home, though that sallat give an appetite to cause me returne. But I have more care of the Stock, then to set it upon a die, and rather put my selfe to the curtesie of noble & worthy censures then ruine this worke, and have a jury (nay a million) of foule mouthed detracters scan upon my endeavours, the ends whereof they cannot dive into. You shall briefly understand, what hath betide since my last, and how we now stand, and are likely to grow to perfection, if we be not altogeather neglected, my stay grounded upon such reason, as had I now returned, it would have hazarded the ruine of all.

Sir Thomas Gates having imbarqued himselfe for England, I put my selfe into Captaine <Argall > s ship, with a hundred and fifty men in my frigot, and other boats went into Pamaunkie river, where Powhatan hath his residence, and can in two or three daies, draw a thousand men togeather, with me I carried his daughter, who had been long prisoner with us, it was a day or two before we heard of them: At length they demaunded why we came; I gave for answere that I came to bring him his daughter, conditionally he would (as had been agreed upon for her ransome) render all the armes, tooles, swords, and men that had runne away, and give me a slip full of corne, for the wrong he had done unto us: if they would doe this, we would be friends, if not burne all. They de-maunded time to send to their King; I assented, I taking, they receiving two pledges, to carrie my message to Powhatan. All night my two men lay not far from the water side, about noon the next day they told them the great King was three daies journey off, that Opochankano was hard by, to whom they would have had them deliver their message, saying, that what he agreed upon and did, the great King would conforme. This Opocankano is brother to Powhatan, and is his and their chiefe Captaine: and one that can as soone (if not sooner) as Powhatan commaund the men. But my men refused to doe my message unto any sane Powhatan, so they were brought back, and I sent theirs to them, they tould me that they would fetch Simons to me, who had thrice plaid the runnagate, whose lies and villany much hindred our trade for corne: But they delayed us, so as we went a shore they shot at us, we were not behinde hand with them, killed some, hurt others, marched into the land, burnt their houses, tooke their corne, and quartered all night ashore.

The next day we went further up the river, they dogged us and called to know whither we went; wee answered, to burne all, if they would not doe as we demaunded, and had been agreed upon. They would they said, bring all the next day, so wee forbare all hostility, went ashore, their men in good numbers comming amongst us, but we were very cautious, & stood to our arms. The Kings daughter went ashore, but would not talke to any of them scarce of them of the best sort, and to them onely, that if her father had loved her, he would not value her lesse then olde swords, peeces, or axes: whereof she would stil dwell with the English men, who loved her. At last came one from Powhatan, who told us, that Simons was run away, to Nonsowhaticond, which was a truth, as afterwards appeared, but that the other English man was dead, that proved a lie: for since, Mr. Harmor, whom I employed to Powhatan brought him to me, our peeces, swords, and tooles within fifteen daies, should be sent to James towne, with some corne, and that his daughter should be my childe, and ever dwell with mee, desiring to be ever friends, and named such of his people, and neighbour Kings, as he desired to be included, and have the benefit of the peace, promising if any of our men came to him, without leave from me, he would send them back: and that if any of his men stole from us, or killed our cattel, he would send them to us to be punished, as we thought fit. With these conditions we returned, and within the time limited, part of our Arms were sent, and 20 men with corne, and promised more, which he hath also sent. Opachankano desired I would call him friend, and that he might call me so, saying he was a great Captaine, and did alwaies fight: that I was also a great Captaine, and therefore he loved mee; and that my friends should be his friends. So the bargain was made and every eight or ten daies, I have messages and presents from him, with many appearances that he much desireth to continue friendshippe.

Now may you indulge Sir, if the God of battailes have not a helping hand in this, that having our swords drawn, killing their men, burning their bouses, and taking their corne: yet they tendred us peace, and strive with all allcrity to keep us in good oppinion of them; by which many benefits arise unto us. First, part of our armes, disgracefully lost long agoe, (kept by the Savages as Monuments and Trophies of our shames) redelivered, some repaire to our honor. Our catle to increase, without danger of destroying, our men at liberty, to hunt freely for venison, to fish, to doe any thing else, or goe any whither, without danger; to follow the husbanding of their corne securely, whereof we have about five hundred Acres set, and God be praised, in more forwardnesse, then any of the Indians, that I have seene, or heard off this yeere, roots, and hearbs we have in abundanue; all doubt of want is by God's blessing quite vanished, and much plenty expected. And which is not the least materiall, we may by this peace, come to discover the countrey better, both by our own travells, and by the relation of the Savages, as we grow in familiarity with them.

Powhatans daughter I caused to be carefully instructed in Christian Religion, who after shee had made some good progresse therein, renounced publickly her countrey Idolatry, openly confessed her Christian faith, was, as she desired, baptized, and is since married to an English Gentleman of good understanding, (as by his letter unto me, coutaining the reasons for his marriage of her you may perceive) another knot to binde this peace the stronger. Her Father and friends gave approbation to it, and her Uncle gave her to him in the Church: she lives civilly and lovingly with him, and I trust will increase in goodness, as the knowledge of God increaseth in her. She will goe into England with me, and were it but the gayning of this one soule, I will thinke my time, toile, and present stay well spent.

Since this accident the Governours and people of Checkahomanics, who are five hundred bow- men, and better, a stout and warlike Nation have made meanes to have us come unto them, and conclude a peace, where all the Governours would meete me. They having thus three or foure times importuned mee, I resolved to go, so taking Captain <Argall > , with fifty men in my frigot, and barge I went thither: Captain <Argall > with forty men landed, I kept aboord for some reasons. Upon the meeting they tould Captain <Argall > they had longed to be friends, that they had no King, but eight great men, who governed them. He tould them that we came to be friends, asked them if they would have King James to be their King, & whether they would be his men? They after som conference between themselves seemed willing of both, demaunding if we would fight against their enemies, he tould them that if any did them injury, they should send me word, and I would agree them, or if their adversaries would not, then I would let them have as many men as they would to help them: they liked well of that, and tould him that all their men should helpe us. All this being agreed upon, C. <Argall gave every Councellor a Tamahawk, and a peece of copper, which was kindly taken; they requested further, that if their boats should happen to meet with our boats, and that they said they were the Chikahominy Englishmen, and King James his men, we would let them passe: we agreed unto it, so that they pronounced them selves English men, and King James and his men, promising within fifteen daies to come unto James town to see me, and conclude theese conditions; every bowman being to give me as a Tribute to King James two measures of Corne every harvest, the two measures containing two bushells and a halfe, and I to give every bowman a small Tamahawke, and to every Counseller a suit of red cloath, which did much please them. This people never acknowledged any King, before; no nor ever would acknowledge Powhatan for their King, a stout people they be, and a delicate seat they have.

Now Sir you see our conditions, you and al worthy men may judge, whether it would not be a griefe to see these faire hopes frostbitten and these fresh budding plants to wither which had I returned, had assuredly followed: for heer is no one that the people would have to govern them, but my selfe: for I had now come away, had I not found a generall desire in the best sort to returne to England: letter upon letter, request upon request from their friends to returne, so as I knew not upon whom to conferre the care of this busines in my absence, whom I thought fitte was generally distasted, so as seeing the eminent ensuing danger, should I have left this multitude, not yet fully refined, I am resolved to stay till harvest be got in, and then settle things according to my poor understanding, and returne: if in the interim there come no authorized Governour from England.I

Consider I pray you since things be brought to this passe as you see, and that I should have come away, if then through their factions, humors, mutinies, or indiscretion of the Chiefes I had left behind, this should fall to ruine: I then should receive the imputation; I incurre the blame, for quitting the Plantation, although I might doe it, both with my honour, my promised stay of time being expired, and having warrant from my Soverainge, the Kings Majesty: but the precedent reasons moved me and that this action of such price, such excellency, and assured profit to mine own knowledge should not die to the scorne of our Nation, and to give cause of laughter to the Papists that desire our ruine. I can assure you, no countrey of the world affoordes more assured hopes of infinit riches, which both by mine own peoples discovery, & the relation of such Savages, whose fidelity we have often found assureth me.

Oh why should so many Princes, and noble men ingage themselves and thereby intermedling herein, have caused a number of soules to transport themselves, and be transported hither? Why should they (I say) relinquish this so glorious an Action: for if their ends bee to build God a Church, they ought to persever: if otherwise, yet their honour ingageth them to be constant. Howsoever they stand affected, here is enough to content them, let their ends be either for God, or Mammon.

These things have animated me to stay for a little season, to leave those, I am tied in conscience to returne unto, to leave the assured benefits of my other fortunes, the sweete society of my friends, and acquaintance, with all mundall delightes, and reside heer with much turmoile, which I will constantly doe, rather than see Gods glorie diminished, my King and Coun- trey dishonoured, and these poore people, I have the charge of ruined. And so I beseech you to an answere for me, if you hear me taxed for my staying, as some may imply so, and that these are my chiefe motives God I take to witnesse. Remember me, and the cause I have in hand, in your daily meditations, and reckon me in the number of those that doe sincerely love you and yours, and will ever rest in all offices of a friend, to doe you service.

From James towne in Virginia

The 18 of June, 1614.

Thomas Dale.

To my very deere and loving Cofen M.G. Minister of the B.F. in London.

Sir the Colony here is much better. Sir Thomas Dale our religious and valiant Governour, hath now brough that to passe, which never before could be effected. For by warre upon our enemies, and kinde usage of our friends, he hath brought them to seeke for peace of us, which is made, and they dare not breake. But that which is best, one Pocahuntas or Matoa the daughter of Powhatan, is married to an honest and discreete English Gentleman Master Rolfe, and that after she had openly I2renounced her countrey Idolatry, confessed the faith of Jesus Christ, and was baptized; which thing Sir Thomas Dale had laboured along time to ground in her.

Yet notwithstanding, are the vertous deeds of this worthy Knight, much debased, by the letters which some wicked men have written from hence, and especially by one C.L. if you heare any condemne this noble Knight, or doe feare to come hither, for those slaunderous letters, you may upon my word bouldly reprove them. You know that no malefactors can abide the face of the Judge, but themselves scorning to be reproved, doe prosecute with all hatred, all those that labour their amendment. I marvaile much that any men of honest life, should feare the sword of the magistrate, which is unsheathed onely in their defense.

But I much more muse, that so few of English Ministers that were so hot against the Surplis and subscription: come hither where neither spoken of. Due they not either willfully hide their Tallents, or keepe themselves at home for feare of loosing a few pleasures? Be there not any amongst them of Moses his minde, and of the Apostles, that forsooke all to follow Christ? But I referre them to the judge of all hearts, and to the King that shall reward every one according to the gaine of his Tallent. But you my cosen, hold fast that which you have, and I thought my promise of 3 yeeres service to my country be expired, will abide in my vocation here until I be lawfully called from hence. And so betaking us all unto the mercies of God in Christ Jesus, I rest for ever.

Virginina June 18, 1614.

Your most deere and loving cosen.


The coppie of the Gentle-mans letters to Sir Thomas Dale, that after maried Powhatans daughter, containing the reasons moving him thereunto.

Honourable Sir, and most worthy Governour: when your leasure shall best serve you to pursue these lines, I trust in God, the beginning will not strike you into a greater admiration, then the end will give you good content. It is a matter of no small moment, concerning my own particular which here I impart unto you, and which toucheth mee so neerely, as the tendernesse of my salvation. Howbeit I freely subject my selfe to your grave and mature judgement, deliberation, approbation and determination; assuring my selfe of your zealous admonitions, and godly comforts, either perswading me to desist, or incouraging me to profit therein, with a religious feare and godly care, for which (from the very instant, that this began to roote it selfe, within the secret bosome of my breast) my daily and earnest praiers have bin, still are, and ever shall bee pro-I3ved forthwith, as sincere, a godly zeale, as I possibly may to be directed, aided and governed in all my thoughts, words and deedes, to the glory of God, and for my eternal consolation. To persevere wherein I never had more neede, nor (till now) could ever imagine to have bin moved with the like occasion.

But (my case standing as it doth) what better worldly refuge can I here seeke, then to shelter my selfe under the safety of your favourable protection? And did not my ease proceede from an unspotted conscience, I should not dare to offer to your view and approved judgement, these passions of my troubled soule, so fulle of feare and trembling is hypocrisie and dissimulation. But knowing my owne innocence & Godly fervor, in the whole prosecution hereof, I doubt not of you benigne acceptance, and element construction. As for malicious depravers, & turbulét spirits, to whom nothing is tastful, but what pleaseth their unsavory pallat, I passe not for them being well assured in my perswasion (by the often triall and proving of my selfe, in my holiest meditations and praiers) that I am called hereunto by the spirit of God; and it shall be sufficient for me to be protected by your selfe in all vertous and pious indeavours. And for my more happie proceeding herein, my daily oblations shall ever be addressed to bring to passe so good effects, that your selfe, and all the world may truely say: This is the worke of God, and it is marvelous in our eies.

But to avoide tedious preambles, and to come neerer the matter: first suffer me with your patience, to sweepe and make cleane the way wherein I walke, from all suspicions and doubts, which may be covered therein, and faithfully to reveal unto you, what should move me hereunto.

Let therefore this my well adjutsed protestation, which here I make betweene God and my own conscience, be a sufficient witnesse, at the dreadfull day of judgement (when the secret of all mens harts shall be opened) to condemne me herein, if my chiefest intent and purpose be not, to strive with all my power of body and minde, in the undertaking of so mightie a matter, no way led (so farre forth as mans weaknesse may permit) with the unbridled desire of carnall affection: but for the good of this plantation for the honour of our countrie, for the glory of God, for my owne salvation, and for the converting to the true knowledge of God and Jesus Christ, and unbeleeving creature, namely Pokahuntas. To whom my heartie and best thoughts are, and have a long time bin so intangled, and inthralled in so intricate a laborinth, that I was even awearied to unwinde my selfe thereout. But almighty God, who never faileth his, that truely invocate his holy name, hath opened the gate, and led me by the hand that I might plainely see and discerne the safe paths wherein to treade.

To you therefore (most noble Sir) the patron and Father of us in this countrey doe I utter the effects of this my setled and long continued affection (which hath made a mightie warre in my meditations) and here I doe truely relate, to what issue this dangerous combate is come unto, wherein I have not onely examined, but thoroughle tried and pared my thoughts even to the quicke, before I could finde any fit wholesome and apt applications to cure so dangerous and ulcer. I never failed to offer my daily and faithfull prayers to God, for his sacred and holy assistance. I forget not to set before mine eies the frailty of mankinde, his prones to evill, his indulgencie of wicked thoughts, with many other imperfections wherein man is daily insnared, and oftentimes overthrowne, and them compared to my present estate. Nor was I ignorant of the heavie displeasure which almightie God conceived against the Sonnes of Levie and Israel for marrying strange wives, nor of the inconveniences which may thereby arise, with other the like good motions which made me looke about warily and with good circumspection, into the grounds and principall agitations, which thus should provoke me to be in love with one whose education hath bin rude, her manners barbarous, her generation accursed, and so discrepant in all nurturiture from my selfe, that oftentimes with feare and trembling, I have ended my private controversie with this: surely these are wicked instigations, hatched by him who seeketh and delighteth in mans destruction; and so with fervent praiers to be ever preferred from such diabolical assaults (as I tooke those to be) I have taken some rest.

Thus when I had thought I had obtained my peace and quietnesse, behold another, but more gracious tentation hath made breaches into my holiest and strongest meditations; with which I have bin put to a new triall, in a straighter manner then the former: for besides the many passions and sufferings, which I have daily, hourely, yea and in my sleepe indured, even awaking mee to astonishment, taxing me with remisnesse, and carelesnesse, refusing and neglecting to performe the duetie of a good Christian, pulling me by the eare, and crying: why dost not thou indeavour to make her a Christian? And these have happened to my greater wonder, even when she hath bin furthest separated from me, which in common reason (were it not an undoubted worke of God) might breede forgetfulnesse of a farre more worthie creature. Besides, I say the holy spirit of God hath often demaunded of me, why I was created? If not for transitory pleasures and worldly vanities, but to labour in the Lord's vineyard, there to sow and plant, to nourish and increase the fruites thereof, daily adding with the good husband in the Gospell, somewhat to the tallent, that in the end the fruites may be reaped, to the comfort of the laborer in this life, and his salvation in the world to come? And if this be, as undoubtedly this is, the service Jesus Christ requireth of his best servant; wo unto him that hath these instruments of pietie put into his hands, and wilfully despiseth to work with them. Likewise, adding hereunto her great appa-Krance of love to me, her desire to be taught and instructed in the knowledge of God, her capablenesse of understanding, her aptnesse and willingnesse to receive anie good impressions, and also the spirituall, besides her owne incitements stirring me up hereunto.

What should I doe? Shall I be of so untoward a disposition, as to refuse to leade the blind into the right way? Shall I be so unnaturall, as not to give bread to the hungrie? Or uncharitable, as not to cover the naked? Shall I despise to actuate these pious dueties of a Christian? Shall the base feare of displeasing the world, overpower and with- holde mee from revealing unto man these spirituall workes of the Lord, which in my meditations and praiers, I have daily made knowne unto him? God forbid. I assuredly trust hee hath thus delt with me for my eternall felicitie, and for his glorie and I hope so to be guided by his heavenly grace, that in the end by my faithfull paines, and christian-like labour, I shall attaine to that blessed promise, Pronounced by that holy Prophet Daniell unto the righteous that bring many unto the knowledge of God. Namely, that they shall shine like the starres forever and ever. A sweeter comfort cannot be to a true Christian, nor a greater incouragement for him to labour all the daies of his life, in the performance thereof, nor a greater gaine of consolation, to be desired at the hower of death, and in the day of judgement.

Againe by my reading, and conference with honest and religious persons, have I received no small encouragement, besided serena mea conscientia, the clearenesse of my conscience, clean from the filth of impurity, quae est instar mure ahenci, which is unto me, as a brazen wall. If I should set down at large, the perturbations & godly motions, which have striver within mee, I should but make a tedious & unnecessary volume. But I doubt not these shall be sufficient both to certifie you of my tru intents, in discharging of my dutie to God, & to your selfe, to whose gracious providence I humbly submit my selfe, for his glory, your honour, our Countreys good, the benefit of this Plantation, and for the converting of one unregenerate, to regeneration; which I beseech God to graunt, for his deere Sonne Christ Jesus sake.

Now if the vulgar sort, who square all mens actions by the base rule of their own filthinesse, shall taxe or taunt me in this my godly labour: Let them know, it is not any hungry appetite, to gorge my selfe with incontinency; sure (if I would, and were so sensually inclined) I might satisfie such desire, though not without a seared conscience, yet with Christians more pleasing to the eie, and lesse fearefull in the offense unlawfully committed. Nor am I in so desperate an estate, that I regard not what becommeth of me, nor am I out of hope but one day to see my Country, nor so void of friends, nor mean in birth, but there to obtain a mach to my great con-K2tent: nor have I ignorantly passed over my hopes there, or regardlesly seek to loose the love of my friends, by taking this course: I know them all, and have not rashly overslipped any.

But shall it please God thus to dispose of me (which I earnestly desire to fulfill my ends before sette down) I will heartely accept of it, as a godly taxe appointed me, and I will never cease, (God assisting me) until I have accomplished, & brought to perfection so holy a worke, in which I will daily pray God to blesse me, to mine, and her eternall happines. And thus desiring no longer to live, to enjoy the blessings of God, then this is my resolution doth tend to such godly ends, as are by me before declared: not doubting of your favourable acceptance, I take my leave, beseeching Almighty God to raine downe upon you, such plentitude of his heavenly graces, as your heart can wish and desire, as so I rest, At your commaund most willing to be disposed offJohn Rolfe

Virginia therefore standing now in such a goodly proportion, and faire forwardnesse of thriving, as it was never yet hitherto seen in, since it began to be first planted: cannot but soone come to perfection, to the exceeding great comfort of all well affected Christians, and no small profit of the planters, and adventurers: if it be well seconded and supplyed, with a good number of able men: Wherefore, let none bee heerafter unwilling all they may to further this most honourable Action, and be forward to uphold and support it from falling, by their speech, and countenance, and freely adventuring thither, both in their persons, & also by their purses, as God hath inabled them. To conclude, as Azariah said once to King Azah, Juda, and Benjamin, so say I unto all. Bee yee strong therefore, and let not your hands be weake: for your worke shall have a reward. And as the holy Apostle said to the Corinthians, Be ye therefore stedfast, unmoveable, abundant alwaies in the workes of the Lord, for as much as ye know your labour is not in vaine in the Lord, let us not therefore bee wearie of welldoing: for in due season, wee shall reape, if wee faint not as the Apostle tolde the Galatians. Farewell.