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Timeline of Paspahegh-English Interaction

When Captain John Smith and his fellow colonists selected their seasonal hunting grounds on Jamestown Island for the site of their fort, the Paspahegh became the first victim of English expansion in the Chesapeake. The Paspahegh were the primary representatives of the Powhatan in the first months of the colony, and thus were key players in the process of mutual appraisal, violence, and wary alliance that characterized Powhatan-English relations during the early contact period. As their nearest neighbors on the James, the Paspahegh made convenient trading partners to the English, but also were convenient military targets when an offense against the colonists had to be punished. Their losses in the early days of the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1611 appear to have led to the abandonment of Paspahegh territory and the demise of the Paspahegh as a named group.

The timeline below presents documentary references to the Paspahegh found in the Virtual Jamestown archive and other available sources, allowing an examination of the Indian-English encounter from the perspective of a single Powhatan group. Many of the references below were first compiled by Hodges and Hodges 1994.

May 4, 1607

While exploring the James, the English first make contact with the Paspaheghs (Paspihas) and listen to, but are unable to understand, an "oration" by the Paspahegh werowance, Wowinchoppunck. The Rappanhannock werowance (apparently well out of his own territory) joins the meeting and expresses unhappiness that the English are with the Paspaheghs before extending an invitation to visit his village.



 The fourth day of May, we came to the King or Werowance of Paspihe: where they entertained us with much welcome;
[A long oration.]
an old Savage made a long Oration, making a foule noise, uttering his speech with a vehement action, but we knew little what they meant. Whilst we were in company with the Paspihes, the Werowance of Rapahanna came from the other side of the River in his Cannoa: he seemed to take displeasure of our being with the Paspihes: he would faine have had us to come to his Towne, the Captaine was unwilling; seeing that the day was so far spent he returned backe to his ships for that night.  (Percy, 1606)

May 13, 1607

After exploring up the James into Appamattuck territory, the English return downriver to Jamestown Island, an area they acknowledge as Paspahegh territory.


The thirteenth day, we came to our seating place in Paspihas Countrey, some eight miles from the point of Land, which I made mention before: where our shippes doe lie so neere the shoare that they are moored to the Trees in six fathom water. (Percy 1606)

May 14, 1607

The English land on Jamestown Island and begin constructing their fort. They are observed from afar by probable Paspahegh scouts and are soon approached by two messengers of the Paspahegh werowance, promising that the chief would shortly visit, bringing a gift of a deer.



The fourteenth day we landed all our men which were set to work about the fortification, and others some to watch and ward as it was convenient. The first night of our landing, about midnight, there came some Savages sayling close to our quarter: presently there was an alarum given; upon that the Savages ran away, and we not troubled any more by them that night. Not long after there came two Savages that seemed to be Commanders, bravely drest, with Crownes of coloured haire upon their heads, which came as Messengers from the Werowance of Paspihae; telling us that their Werowance was comming and would be merry with us with a fat Deare. (Percy 1606)

May 18, 1607

The Paspahegh werowance, Wowinchopunck, and one hundred armed men visit Jamestown fort. According to George Percy's account below, Wowinchopunck indicates that he would grant the settlers "as much land as we would desire to take." The Paspaheghs leave in anger after a violent dispute over an English hatchet. Wowinchopunck was described by William Strachey (1964:67) as "one of the mightiest and strongest Salvadges that Powhatan had under him, and was therefore one of his Champions."


The eighteenth day, the Werowance of Paspihae came himselfe to our quarter, with one hundred Savages armed, which garded him in a very warlike manner with Bowes and Arrowes, thinking at that time to execute their villainy. Paspihae made great signes to us to lay our Armes away. But we would not trust him so far: he seeing he could not have convenient time to worke his will, at length made signes that he would give us as much land as we would desire to take.
[Land given. These Savages are naturally great theeves.]
As the Savages were in a throng in the Fort, one of them stole a Hatchet from one of our company, which spied him doing the deed: whereupon he tooke it from him by force, and also strooke him over the arme: presently another Savage seeing that, came fiercely at our man with a wooden sword, thinking to beat out his brains. The Werowance of Paspiha saw us take to our Armes, went suddenly away with all his company in great anger. (Percy 1606)

May 19, 1607

George Percy and others make a visit to a Paspahegh village and describe the gardens they encounter on the way. Most of the villagers are away hunting with Wowinchopunck (likely to acquire the gift to be given on the following day). The English witness the hasty departure from the village of an armed man, and, wary of a trap, they withdraw after receiving a gift of tobacco.



The nineteenth day, my selfe and three or foure more walking into the Woods by chance wee espied a path-way like to an Irish pace: wee were desirous to knowe whither it would bring us; wee traced along some foure miles, all the way as wee went, having the pleasantest Suckles, the ground all flowing over with faire flowers of sundry colours and kindes, as though it had beene in any Garden or Orchard in England. There be many Strawberries, and other fruits unknowne: wee saw the Woods full of Cedar and Cypresse trees, with other trees, which issues out sweet Gummes like to Balsam: wee kept on our way in this Paradise, at length wee came to a Savage Towne, where wee found but few people, they told us the rest were gone a hunting with the Werowance of Paspiha: we stayed there a while, and had of them Strawberries, and other things; in the meane time one of the Savages came running out of his house with a Bowe and Arrowes and ranne mainly through the Woods: then I beganne to mistrust some villanie, that he went to call some companie, and so betray us, wee made all the haste away wee could: one of the Savages brought us on the way to the Wood side, where there was a Garden of Tobacco, and other fruits and herbes, he gathered Tobacco, and distributed to every one of us, so wee departed. (Percy 1606)

May 20, 1607

Forty Paspahegh men visit Jamestown and bring a gift of a deer, making good Wowinchopucnk's promise of May 14th. Rountree (1990:31) suggests that the size of the visiting party may indicate a planned ambush. The Jamestown settlers are also suspicious of the Paspaheghs' intentions and seek to demonstrate the superiority of English armor. After piercing an English wooden shield, one Paspahegh is angered when his arrow fails to penetrate English steel.

The twentieth day of Werowance of Paspiha sent fortie of his men with a Deere, to our quarter: but they came more in villanie than any love they bare us: they faine would have layne in our Fort all night, but wee would not suffer them for feare of their treachery. One of our Gentlemen having a Target which hee trusted in, thinking it would beare out a slight shot, hee set it up against a tree, willing one of the Savages to shoot; who tooke from his backe an Arrow of an elle long, drew it strongly in his Bowe, shoots the Target a foote thorow, or better: which was strange, being that a Pistoll could not pierce it. Wee seeing the force of his Bowe, afterwards set him up a steele Target; he shot again, and burst his arrow all to pieces, he presently pulled out another Arrow, and bit it in his teeth, and seemed to bee in a great rage, so hee went away in great anger. (Percy 1606)

May 21 to May 27, 1607

A group of settlers led by Captain Newport travel up the James to explore, to erect a cross to claim the land for King James, and to make peace with the Paspahegh's neighbors, the Weyanocks and Arrohatecks.


May 26 to June 14, 1607

Perhaps spurred by the Newport expedition, distrust turns to violence as the Paspahegh, Weyanocks, and other local groups combine to attack the fort. Their coordinated action suggests the healing of tensions between the Paspahegh and Weyanock reported by the English (Archer 1910:xli; Rountree 1990:34). Sporadic attacks on the fort are conducted throughout this period.

This gave us some occasion to doubt some mischiefe at the Fort, yet Captaine Newport intended to have visited Paspahegh and Tappahanocke, but the instant change of the winde being faire for our return we repaired to the fort withall speed, where the first we heard was that 400. Indians the day before assalted the fort, & surprised it, had not God (beyond al their expectations) by meanes of the shippes at whom they shot with their Ordinances and Muskets), caused them to retire, they had entred the fort with our own men, which were then busied in setting Corne, their armes beeing then in driefats & few ready but certain Gentlemen of their own, in which conflict, most of the Counsel was hurt, a boy slaine in the Pinnas, and thirteene or fourteene more hurt[.] With all speede we pallisadoed our Fort: (each other day) for sixe or seaven daies we had alarums by ambuscadoes, and foure or five cruelly wounded by being abroad: the Indians losse wee know not, but as they report three were slain and divers hurt. (Smith 1608)

June 15, 1607

Powhatan first reveals himself as the chief werowance of the region, when, via messenger, he pledges his friendship with the English and promises to ally with them against the Paspahegh and other hostile werowances if they break the peace. This move no doubt tests Powhatan's ability to control the actions of his subordinate werowances, and the ability of local werowances to control the actions of their followers.


June the 25th, an Indian came to us from the great Poughwaton wth the word of peace; that he desired greatly our freindshipp; that the wyrounnces,6 Pasyaheigh and Tapahanagh,7 should be our freindes; that wee should sowe and reape in peace, or els he would make warrs vpon them wth vs. This message fell out true; for both those wyroaunces haue ever since remayned in peace and trade with vs. (Wingfield 1608:14)

July and August 1607

Salt poisoning, typhoid, dysentery, and starvation result in the deaths of about half of the original colonists.

Drought conditions delay what is likely to be a poor harvest for the Powhatan. The English, desperate to prevent further deaths from starvation, ask for help. Local groups, presumably including the Paspahegh, pledge to provide the English with corn once the harvest comes in.


November 1607

The Paspahegh werowance returns an English boy who attempted to flee the colony (presumably due to starvation).


Paspaheigh sent us a boy that was run from us. This was the first assurance of his peace with us; besides wee found them no Canyballs. (Wingfield 1910:lxxvii)

Early November 1607

The English trade with the Paspahegh for corn on at least three occasions. The hostility between the Paspahegh and English rise to the surface in at least one of these encounters.

In my returne to [at] Paspahegh, I traded with that churlish and treacherous nation: having loaded 10 or 12 bushels of corne, they offred to take our pieces and swords, yet by stelth, but [we] seeming to dislike it, they were ready to assault us: yet standing upon our guard, in coasting the shore, divers out of the woods would meet with us with corn and trade. But least we should be contrained, either to indure overmuch wrong or directly [to] fal to revenge, seeing them dog us from place to place, it being night, and our necessities not fit for warres, we tooke occasion to returne with 10 bushells of corne.

Captaine Martinafter made 2 journies to that nation of Paspahegh, but eache time returned with 8 or 10 bushells. (Smith 1608)

November 20 to December 10, 1607

Smith finds the Chickahominy, the northern neighbors of the Paspahegh that had not yet submitted to Powhatan's rule, eager to trade for corn. He makes three successful trips to trade with the Chickahominy in the colony's "barge," passing by Paspahegh villages, almost certainly including 44JC308.

The 9 of November I set forward for the discovery of the country of Chikhamania, leaving the pinnace the next tid to followe, and stay for my coming at Point weanock 20 miles from our fort: the mouth of this river falleth into the great river at Paspahegh, 8 miles above our fort:

      That afternoone I stayed the eb in the bay of Paspahegh with the Indians: towards the evening certaine Indians haled me, one of them being of Chikahamania, offred to conduct me to his country, the Paspahegheans grudged therat: along we went by moonelight; at midnight he brought us before his Towne, desiring one of our men to go up with him, whom he kindely intertained, and returned back to the barge. (Smith 1608)

December 10, 1607 to January 1, 1608

On his fourth trip to trade with the Chickahominy, Captain John Smith is captured by a hunting party of 300 men from Paspahegh, Chickahominy, Youghtanund, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, and Chiskiack. Again, English actions appear to heal inter-tribal tensions, this time between the Chickahominy and Powhatan himself. Smith becomes acquainted with Openchancanough, Powhatan's brother, before being taken on a tour of the central part of Powhatan's domain. Smith is received by Powhatan at Werowocomoco, where Powhatan proposes that the English "forsake Paspahegh" and relocate to Capahosic, a town on the York River under Powhatan's direct control. Smith promised to comply and was allowed to leave on January 1, 1608.


At his greatnesse, he admired: and not a little feared. He desired mee to forsake Paspahegh, and to live with him upon his River, a Countrie called Capa Howasicke. Hee promised to give me Corne, Venison, or what I wanted to feede us: Hatchets and Copper wee should make him, and none should disturbe us. Smith 1608)


January 1608

Powhatan begins to provision the colony, sending corn regularly.


Late February to early March 1608

Captain Newport and Smith visit Powhatan at Werowocomoco. The English and Powhatan exchange corn for blue beads (analogous to blue "peak" shell beads), trade young men to serve as interpreters, and discuss a combined attack against the Monacan, traditional enemies of the Powhatan. Distrust between the two sides is created when Smith fails to bring Powhatan cannons he promised at their last meeting and the English refuse to disarm in order to take possession of Capahosic.


Spring 1608

The English conduct military drills outside their fort, claiming to be planning for a peaceful expedition upriver. Local groups, undoubtedly including the nearby Paspahegh, become fearful of their intentions. Powhatan allows the Paspahegh and other nearby groups to begin stealing tools and harassing the colonists, eventually provoking the English into seizing several prisoners. The Paspahegh respond by taking prisoners themselves, inciting the English to travel upriver and burn and destroy Paspahegh towns and fields. As one of the closest towns to Jamestown, it is possible that 44JC308 was destroyed and abandoned at this time. Powhatan sued for peace, sending Pocahontas to encourage the release of Paspahegh prisoners.

The Indians seeing me suspect them, with good tearmes, asked me for some of their men whom they would beate; and went with me into our Fort. Finding one that lay ordinarily with us, only for a spie; they offered to beat him. I in perswading them to forbeare, they offered to beginne with me; being now foure: for two other arrayed in like manner, came in on the other side of the Fort.

      Whereupon I caused to shut the Ports, and apprehend them.

      The president and Counsell, being presently acquainted, remembring at the first assault, they came in like manner, and never else but against some villainie, concluded to commit them to prison, and expect the event. Eight more we ceazed at that present.

      An hour after came three or foure other strangers extraordinarily fitted with arrowes, skinnes, and shooting gloves: their jealousie and feare bewrayed their bad intent, as also their suspitious departure.

      The next day, came first an Indian, then another, as Embassadors for their men. They desired to speake with me. Our discourse was, that what Spades, Shovells, swords, or tooles they had stolne to bring home: if not, the next day, they should hang.

      The next newes was, they had taken two of our men ranging in the woods (which mischiefe no punishment will prevent but hanging): and these they would, should redeeme their own 16 or 18; thus braving us to our doores.

      We desired the president, and Captaine Martin, that afternoone to sally upon them, that they might but know what we durst do: and at night, mand our Barge, and burnt their townes, and spoiled and destroyed what we could.

      But they brought our men, and freely delivered them. The president released one. The rest we brought well guarded, to Morning and Evening prayers. Our men all in armes, their trembling feare then caused them to much sorrow, which till then scoffed and scornes at what we durst doe.

      The Counsell concluded, that I should terrifie them with some torture, to know if I could know their intent.

      The next day, I bound one in hold to the maine Mast: and presenting sixe Muskets with match in the cockes, forced him to desire life. To answere me demaunds he could not: but one of his Comouodos was of the counsell of Paspahegh, that could satisfie me:

      I releasing him out of sight, I affrighted the other, first with the rack, then with Muskets; which seeing, he desired me to stay, and hee would confesse to this execution. Smith 1608)

Summer 1608

Captain John Smith led two expeditions to explore the Chesapeake Bay. The Powhatan have reason to worry when the English befriend several of their traditional enemies.


Late Fall 1608

The Powhatan have another bad harvest. The English, facing and severe food shortage and finding the Powhatan less willing to trade for corn, use force to persuade the Indians to trade. Groups on the James River, possibly including the Paspahegh, on at least one occasion desert their towns at the approach of the English rather than be forced to trade. It at last becomes clear to the colonists that the Powhatan were attempting to starve them out of their territory. Raids on the fort occur intermittently through the winter.


January 1609

Following a hostile exchange with the English at his capital of Werowocomoco, Powhatan abandons the town, just 14 miles from Jamestown, and relocates to Orapax in the headwaters of the Chickahominy.


Spring 1609

Local groups, probably including many Paspahegh, continue to harass the fort. Relations are sufficiently hostile that the Paspahegh werowance Wowinchopunck apparently attempts to harm Smith and is taken captive by him. Wowinchopunck eventually escapes. The English take two prisoners in return and mount an attack on Wowinchopunck's town. They fail to kill anyone but are successful in burning the werowance's house and stealing two canoes. Dissatisfied with this result, Smith later kills several Paspahegh, takes six to seven prisoners, and destroys their fishing weirs.

Smith is later cordially received in the Paspahegh district. Through an orator (Ocanindge), Wowoinchopunck makes an eloquent speech justifying his escape. He also explains that should the English continue to use force against them, the Indians will abandon the area, leaving the colonists to starve.


[Smith] incountered the King of Paspaheigh, a most strong stout Salvage; whose perswasions not being able to perswade him to his ambush, seeing him only armed but with a fauchion,, attempted to have shot him. But [Smith] prevented his shot by grapling with him; and the Salvage as well prevented him from drawing his fauchion, and perforce bore him into the river to have drowned him. Long they struggled in the water, from whence the king perceiving two of the Poles upon the sandes, would ave fled: but the President held him by teh haire and throat til the Poles came in. Then seeing howe pittifully the poore Salvage begged his life, they conducted him prisoner to the fort. (Smith 1910a:150-151)



Ocanindge's oration: Captain Smith, my master is here present in this company, thinking it Captaine Win, and not you; and of him, hee intended to have beene revenged, having never offended him. If hee have offended you in escaping your imprisonment, the fishes swim, the fowles flie, and the very beasts strive to escape the snare and live: then blame not him being a man. Hee would entreat you remeber your being a prisoner, what paines he tooke to save your life. If since he hath injured you, he was compelled by it; but, howsoever, you have revenged it with our too great losse. We perceive and well knowe you intend to destroy us, that are here to intreat and desire your friendship, and to enjoy our houses and plant our fields, of whose fruit you shall participate: otherwise you will have the worst by our absence. For we can plant any where, though with more labaour; and we know you cannot live if you want our harvest and that reliefe wee bring you. If you promise us peace, we will beleeve you; of y o! u proceed in revenge, we will abandon the Countrie. (Smith 1910a:152)

Summer and Fall 1609

Sometime following the attack on the Paspahegh, Powhatan requests a truce. By fall, the demands of the English and the English practice of boarding colonists in Indian towns strains relations. Indian attacks on the colonists intensify.


Winter and Spring 1610

The Jamestown colonists are again reduced by starvation, but hostile relations with the Powhatan prevent them from acquiring corn. In late May, when two English ships arrive and discover the extent of the colony's deprivation, they decide to abandon the colony. While sailing up the James, they encounter ships under the command of Lord de la Warr, Virginia's new governor, a much more intolerant leader.


July 15, 1610

De la Warr sends Powhatan an ultimatum: peace or war. He also demands that Powhatan return English prisoners. Powhatan's response is to demand that the English leave unless they agree to remain only within the walls of their fort. De la Warr counters by having the hand of a Paspahegh captive cut off and sending this man with his final ultimatum: that Powhatan return all English captives or face the burning of all the neighboring Powhatan settlements. Powhatan does not respond, perhaps because, as Rountree (1990:54) suggests, the English prisoners had already been killed.


My Lord Generall not forgetteinge oulde POWHATANS subtell Trecherie sentt A Messenger unto him to demawnde certeine armes and dyvrs men wch we supposed mighte be liveinge in his cowntry Butt he Retourned noe other then prowde and disdaynefull Answers. (Percy 1609-1612:271)

August 9, 1610

Powhatan's inaction leads De la Warr to order a force of forty men, led by George Percy, to conduct an attack against the Paspaheghs and Chickahominys. They are reluctantly led to Wowinchopunck's town by a captive Indian where they killed from 65 to 76 Paspahegh before burning their homes and destroying their corn crop. A man, one of Wowinchopunck's wives, and her children are taken prisoner, but the man is beheaded and, after holding a "council," the children are brutally killed. The wife of Wowinchopunck was briefly spared, but after a debate over the manner of her death, she is killed by Captain Davis' sword. The werowance's town is permanently abandoned. This attack against the Paspahegh, and the offense of killing "royal" women and children, starts the First Anglo-Powhatan War.

      Whereupon my Lorde being mutche incensed Cawsed A Comission to be drawne wherein he apointed me Chiefe Comawnder over Seaventie men and sentt me to take Revendge upon the PASPAHEANS and CHICONAMIANS and so Shippeinge my selfe and my sowldiers in towe boates I depted from James Towne the 9th of August 1610 And the same nighte Landed Wthin thre myles of PASPAHAS towne Then draweinge my sowldiers into Battalio placeinge a Capteyne or Leftenante att every fyle we marched towards the Towne haveinge An Indyan guyde wth me named KEMPES whome the Pvoste marshall ledd in A hande locke. This Subtell Salvage was leadinge us outt of the waye the wch I misdowteinge Bastinaded him wch my Truncheon and threatned to cutt of his heade whereupon the slave alltered his Cowrse and browghte us the righte way near unto the towne So that then I Comawnded ever Leader to drawe A way his fyle before me to besett the salvages houses thatt noene mighte escape wth a chardge nott to geve the allarume untill I weare come upp unto them wth the Cullers. At my comeinge I appointed Capte: WILLIAM WESTE to geve the Allarume the wch he Pformed by shooteinge of a psitoll. And then we fell in upon them putt some fiftene or sixtene to the Sworde and Almoste all the reste to flyghte Whereupon I cawsed my drume to beate and drewe all my Sowldiers to the Cullers My Lieftenantt bringeinge wth him the Quene and her Children and one Indyann prisoners for the wch I taxed him becawse he had Spared them his Answer was thatt haveinge them now in my Custodie I mighte doe wth them whatt I pleased. Upon the same I cawsed the Indians heade to be cutt of. And then disPsed my fyles Apointeinge my Sowldiers to burne their howses and to cutt downe their Corne groweinge aboutt the Towne, And after we marched wth the quene And her Children to our Boates ageinge, where beinge noe soener well shipped my sowldiers did begin to murmur becawse the quene and her Children weare spared. So upon the same A Cowncell beinge called itt was Agreed upon to putt the Children to deathe the wch was effected by Throweinge them overboard and shoteinge owtt their Braynes in the water yett for all this Crewellty the Sowldiers weare nott well pleased And I had mutche to doe To save the quenes lyfe for thatt Tyme.

      Then sayleinge some towe myles downe the River I sentt Capte: DAVIS A shoare wth Moste of my Sowldiers my Selfe beinge wearyed before and for my owne Pte butt an easie foote man Capte DAVIS att his landeinge was Apponted by some Indyans who spared nott to send their Arrowes amongste our men but wthin A shorte Tyme he putt them to flighte and landed wthoutt further opposityon marcheinge Aboutt fowrtene myles into the Cowntry cutt downe their Corne burned their howses Temples and Idolles and amongste the reste A Spacyous Temple cleane and neattly keptt A thinge strange and seldome sene amongste the Indyans in those Ptes So haveinge Pformed all the spoyle he cowlde Retourned Aboarde to me ageine and then we sayled downe the River to James Towne.

      My Lord Generall not beinge well did lye A Shippboard to whome we Rowed he being ioyfull of our Safe Retourne yett Seamed to be discontente becawse the quene was spared as Capteyen DAVIS towlde me and thatt itt was my Lords pleasure thatt we sholde see her dispatched The way he thowghte beste to Burne her. To the first I replyed thatt haveinge seene so mutche Bloodshedd thatt day now in my Cowldbloode I desyred to see noe more and for to Burne her I did not howlde itt fitteinge butt either by shott or Sworde to geve her A quicker dispatche So Turninge my selfe from Capte DAVIS he did take the quene wth towe sowldiers A shoare and in the woods putt her to the Sworde and althoughe Capte: DAVIS towlde me itt was my Lords direction yett I ame Pswaded to the contrary. (Percy 1609-1612:271-273)

Late August 1610

A group of Paspahegh warriors, led by "Paspahe" (Wowinchopunck) attempt to surprise the Jamestown colonists. In the fight that follows, the English mortally wound, but fail to capture Wowinchopunck.


      The govermentt whereof beinge lefte to me PASPAHE wth a small Troope of Indyans in sheowe did come unto our Blockhowse thinkeinge by some pollecy either to have Surprysed the same or some of our men. The wch comeinge to my hearinge I presently sent Capte: POWELL then my ANTYENTT wth a certeine Number of men to surprise PASPAHE Allyve if possibly they cowlde for the same wolde have bene to good purpose if itt cowld have bene effected whereupon our men draweinge neare unto him where he stoode upon the ende of A Banke when presently Mr John WALLER stepped unto him and cawghtt howlde of him and gave the Watche worde for the Reste to Come to Assiste him The wch the Salvages Pceveinge dyvrs of them Appeared wch before weare nott seene sendeinge their Arrowes frely amongste our men. The wch Capte: POWELL seeinge did Apprehend thatt their was small hope to bringe in PASPAHE Alyve for he strugled maynely Whereupon he Thruste him twyse throwghe the body wth his Sworde and for all thatt the stowte Indyan Lived and was Caryed away upon Rafters by the Salvages And lieftenantt PUTTOCKE encowntringe wth one of the Salvages hande to fiste grapled wth him and stabbed him to deathe wth his ponnyard.(Percy 1609-1612:274-275)

Fall 1610

A group of warriors, almost assuredly Paspahegh, entice some colonists out of their block house and are successful in killing several men. George Percy interprets the attack as an attempt to avenge Wowoinchopunck, who had presumably died of the wounds received in late August.

According to Rountree (1990:80n.), the named group "Paspahegh" leave the historic record at this point.

Butt Lieftenantt PUTTOCKE beinge called ageine early the nextt morneinge before our watche was discharged in the foarte, Contrary to my Comawnde and moste unadvysedly did goe outt of the Block howse wth the small number of men he had Sheowinge more vallour then will more fury then Judgementt. And some fewe Indyans beinge in Sheowe he followed them wthoutt apprehensyon of that wch ensewed for the Salvages still Retyreinge he followed them untill they browghte him into their ambuskado where beinge five or sixe hundrethe of Salvages lett flye their Arrowes as thinke As hayle amongste our handfull of men And defeated and Cutt them all of in A moment The Arrowes wch they had shott beinge so many in Number thatt the grownd there aboutts was all moste Covered wth them upon wch defeate the Salvages did so Aclamate Showte and hallowe in Tryumphe of their gayned victory thatt the Ecchoe there of made bothe the Ayere and woods to Ringe. The wch filleinge our eares in the Foarte presently wth all Spede I sentt lieftenant ABBOTT wth fifty men to Assiste PUTTOCKE nott knoweinge derecttly whatt had befallen them Althoughe we feared thatt wch had alereddy hapned. Neverthelesse Lieftent ABBOTT encowntred wth the Salvages They then Changeinge their noate Cryeinge PASPAHE PASPAHE Thereby importeinge as mutche, as thatt they had Revendged his wrongs att lenghtt ABBOTT putt the Indyans to flight Recovered the deade bodyes of our men whome he browghte to our foarte where they weare Buryed. (Percy 1609-1612:275-276)